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VTT A&P

Cardiovascular/Respiratory

QuestionAnswer
Which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart? Artery
Which type of blood vessel carries blood toward the heart? Vein
What are the two parts of the cardiovascular system? Pulmonary (lung) circulation, Systemic (body) circulation
Which part of the cardiovascular system carries blood to and from the left rear leg of a pony? Systemic
List three structures found in the mediastinum? Heart, , blood vessels, the thoracic portion of the trachea, the esophagus, the thymus in young animals, lymph nodes, and nerves
What is the mediastinum? The space between the two lungs
Which is located more caudally in a standing pig, the base or the apex of the heart? Apex
What is the difference between the endocardium and the pericardium? The pericardium surrounds the heart while the endocardium lines the internal surface of the myocardium.
Which sits closer to the base of the heart, the left atrium or the right ventricle? Left atrium
What is the name of the structure that is a continuation of the myocardium that forms a wall between the two atria? Interatrial septum
What is the name of the structure that is a continuation of the myocardium that forms a wall between the two ventricles? Interventricular septum
Why is the wall of the right ventricle thinner than the wall of the left ventricle? Because the blood in the right ventricle goes to the lungs and doesn't have to go as far as the blood in the left ventricle which goes to the rest of the body including the toes.
What is another name for the right atrioventricular valve? Tricuspid valve
What is another name for the left atrioventricular valve? Bicuspid/Mitral Valve
What is another name for the semilunar valve of the left ventricle? Aortic valve
What is another name for the semilunar valve of the right ventricle? Pulmonary valve
What is the function of the chordae tendonae? to keep the valves from inverting under the pressure of the blood that fills the chambers of the heart.
List, in order, the structures an erythrocyte will pass through (including valves) to move in a complete circuit from where it is returning from the body. Vena Cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, Pulmonary semilunar valve, Pulmonary artery, Lungs, Pulmonary veins, left atrium, Bicuspid valve, Left ventricle, aortic valve, Aorta, systemic circulation
What is the pacemaker of the heart and where is it located? Sinoatrial (SA) node, wall of the right atrium
What are the four conductors that make up the rapid conduction system for an impulse created by the hearts pacemaker? Sinoatrial (SA) node, Atrioventricular (AV) node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fiber system
The working phase of a cardiac cycle is what? Systole
What generates the impulse that results in muscle contraction? The Sinoatrial (SA) node
What is happening in the other three heart chambers during left atrial diastole? Right atrial diastole, left & right ventricular systole
When the mitral valve is forced closed it produces part of which heart sound? Is the first or second sound? "Lub" 1st
Stroke volume is a measurement of what? The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle during one contraction or systole.
If the cardiac output and stroke volume both decrease what has to happen to the heart rate to achieve equilibrium? It has to increase
What is the difference between the preload and the afterload in reference to the stroke volume? Preload is the volume of blood that the ventricle receives from the atrium while afterload is the physical resistance it encounters.
How could mitral valve stenosis affect the stroke volume? It could lead to incomplete filling of the ventricle which would decrease the stroke volume
From the aortic valve in the left ventricle to the right atrium, what are, in order, the types of blood vessels a drop of blood will pass through Elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
The coronary artery is the first branch off the aorta, is it a muscular or elastic artery? Why? Elastic, because it has to be able to stretch and recoil without damage each time a surge of blood is ejected from a ventricle during ventricular systole
In a pregnant ewe, which are the only two veins that are carrying oxygenated blood? Pulmonary Vein and Umbilical Vein
What two bypass structures are found in the fetus that allow most of its blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation? Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
What is the skeleton of the heart? Four dense fibrous connective tissue rings located between the atria and the ventricles.
What are the primary functions of the skeleton of the heart? Separate the atria and ventricles, anchor the heart valves, provide a point of attachment for the myocardium, and provide some electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles
What are the three common venipuncture sites in cats? Jugular vein, cephalic vein, femoral vein (medial surface)
What is the general name for the flap of connective tissue that makes up a heart valve? Auricle
What are the little cords of connective tissue that attach the free edges of an atrioventricular valve to the walls of the ventricle? Chordae tendonae
How many cusps does the mitral valve have? Two
Does the right or left ventricle of the heart have the thicker muscle? Left
How many cusps does the right atrioventricular valve have? Three
What valves are also known as the semilunar valves? (Right) Pulmonary Valve and (Left) Aortic Valve
What valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery? Pulmonary (semilunar) Valve
What is the name for the wide cranial end of the heart? This is the area where the arteries and veins enter and exit? Base
What is the name for the caudal, pointed end of the heart, which contains the left ventricle? Apex
Is a blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart an afferent or efferent blood vessel? Efferent
Is a blood vessel carrying blood toward the heart an afferent or efferent blood vessel? Afferent
Doses the right or left side of the heart pump blood to the lungs? Right
Does the right or left side of the heart receive blood from the body (systemic circulation)? Right
What vessel carries blood from the lungs to the heart? Pulmonary Vein
What is the valve between the left ventricle and the largest systemic artery? Aortic (semilunar) Valve
What is the name of the largest systemic artery? Aorta
Is the vena cava an afferent or efferent blood vessel? Afferent
Is the aorta an afferent or efferent blood vessel? Efferent
Is the blood in the aorta oxygen rich or oxygen poor? Oxygen Rich
Is the blood in the vena cava oxygen rich or oxygen poor? Oxygen Poor
Is the blood in the pulmonary artery oxygen rich or oxygen poor? Oxygen poor
What artery supplies blood to the head? Common Carotid
What vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs? Pulmonary Artery
What is the largest vein in the body? Vena Cava
What superficial vessels (an artery and a vein) lie on the medial surface of the inner thigh? Femoral Artery & Femoral Vein
What vein runs up the cranial surface of the forelimb below the elbow? Cephalic Vein
What vein is located just distal to the femoral vein on the hind leg? Medial Saphenous Vein
What vein is most commonly used for drawing blood when a large volume is needed? Jugular Vein
What vein curves up the lateral surface of the hindlimb just above the hock? Lateral Saphenous Vein
What blood vessels, which supply blood to the hindlimbs, does the abdominal aorta bifurcate Right and Left Iliac arteries
Is the jugular vein an afferent or efferent blood vessel? Afferent
Is the color of arterial blood dark red or bright red? Bright Red
Why is the color of arterial blood bright red? Because it's highly oxygenated
Does venous blood spurt or ooze from a damaged vein? Why? Ooze, because it's under less pressure than an artery since it's going to the heart instead of away
Does arterial blood spurt or ooze from a damaged artery? Why? Spurt, because it's under pressure from the contractions of the ventricles
What is the fluid in which all the elements of the cardiovascular system live called? Plasma
What component of blood is responsible for moving oxygen from place to place? (planes, trains, automobiles) Erythrocytes
What component of blood are considered to be the first responders to a vessel wall injury? Thrombocytes
What structure has the function of moving blood and everything it carries through and animal's body? The heart
What structures carry blood away from the heart? Arteries
What structures carry blood toward the heart? Veins
Which side of the heart controls the pulmonary circulation, receiving deoxygenated blood and pumping it into the lungs via the pulmonary artery where it becomes oxygenated? Right
Which side of the heart controls the systemic circulation and receives oxygenated blood from the lungs to pump it to the rest o the body via the aorta? Left
What is the mediastinum? The area in the middle of the thoracic cavity where the heart sits
When an animal is standing where is the heart located? Between the elbows
What is the fibrous sac that surrounds the heart called? Pericardium
What part of the pericardium is a little loose so the heart can beat, but not elastic enough to allow the heart to become abnormally enlarged? Pericardial (Fibrous) Sac
What is the smooth, moist part of the serous pericardium called? Parietal Layer
What fills the pericardial space and lubricates the two membranes, preventing friction as they rub together during contractions and relaxations of the heart? Pericardial Fluid
What is the thickest muscle layer of the wall of the heart called? Myocardium
Why do heart muscles not fatigue? Because they are autorhythmic
What is the outermost layer of the heart wall called? Epicardium/visceral layer of the serous pericardium
What is composed of thin, flat squamous epithelium and lies on the internal surface of the myocardium? Endocardium
What chamber receives blood into the heart? Atria
What chamber pumps blood out of the heart? Ventricles
What is the blind pouch that comes off the main part of the atria called? Auricle
What is visible on the outside of the heart and contains coronary blood vessels? It is frequently filled with fat. Interventricular Sulcus (Groove)
What prevents backflow of blood into the chambers of the heart? The valves of the heart closing at specific times
What causes the tricuspid valve to open? They open when the pressure from the amount of blood in the right atrium exceeds that in the right ventricle.
What is formed by the joining of the coronary veins in order to return blood to the circulation? Coronary sinus
What is an infection of the pericardium that usually progresses to heart failure and death? Septic Pericarditis
True or False: A transplanted heart can function well even without the nerve supply of the body? True
What may occur spontaneously and cause excess fluid to accumulate in the pericardial sac? Pericardial Effusion
What often accompanies Pericardial Effusion and causes a less complete cardiac filling, decreasing the stroke volume and cardiac output? Cardiac Tamponade
What activity occurs when the synchronized contraction of the heart is lost and the heart receives electrical currents from more than one direction? Ectopic pacemaker activity
What is the process by which Na+ and Ca+ ions move through channels from the exterior to the interior of the cell ions and K+move from the interior to the exterior? Depolarization
What is the term for a contraction of the myocardium? Systole
What is the term for relaxation and repolarization of the myocardium? Diastole
What produces the Lub sound? The AV valves snapping shut
What produces the Dub sound? The semilunar valves closing
What side of the animal are heart sounds usually best heard? Left
What is the sound heard when cardiac valves do not close all the way? Murmur
What is the condition where the valves do not open all the way? Valvular stenosis
What is the measure of blood output from the left over a unit of time , usually 1 minute? Cardiac output
What determines cardiac output? Stroke volume and heart rate
What are the smallest branches in the arterial tree? arterioles
Oxygenated blood flows through what vessel from the mother to the developing fetus? Umbilical Vein
What is the number in the blood pressure reading, produced by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle into systemic circulation by way of the aorta? Systolic
On an electrocardiogram what is the time it takes the wave of depolarization to travel from the SA node through the aorta? P wave
On an electrocardiogram what represents the time of the ventricular depolarization? QRS complex
On an electrocardiogram what represents the time of ventricular relaxation? T wave
What is an especially useful method of evaluating the relative size of the heart chambers, thickness of the myocardium, and the functioning of the valves? two dimensional echocardiogram
What is the most commonly used site of venipuncture in dogs and cats? It runs between the elbow and the carpus on the craniomedial aspect of the forelimb. Cephalic vein
What two vessels lie close together, meaning care must be taken to avoid accidental injection into one due to the fact the vessel carries blood quickly to the brain? Jugular Veins and Carotid arteries (avoid the Carotid)
What vessel can be found on lactating dairy cattle, along the ventral aspect of each side of the abdomen from the udder to the level of the sternum and must NEVER be used for venipuncture? Why not? Superficial Caudal Epigastric Vein (Milk Vein), because it is small, thin-walled, and prone to excess bleeding and hematoma formation which may lead to the develoment of an abscess
What can be found on a rodent, along the ventral midline of the tail, and can be used for venipuncture? The coccygeal vein
What are the two fibrous connective tissue bands in the larynx that vibrate as air passes over them to produce sound? Vocal cords
What structure is also known as the windpipe? Trachea
What is the thin dome-shaped muscle that forms the boundary between the thoracic and abdominal cavities called? Diaphragm
What is the structure that is a short, irregular tube of cartilage and muscle that connects the pharynx and the trachea? Larynx
What is the point at which the trachea divides into the two primary bronchi called? It is the bifurcation of the trachea
What structure opens into the larynx? Glottis
What is another name for the nostrils? Nares
What forms the midline barrier that separates the left and right nasal passages? Nasal Septum
What is the common passageway for the respiratory and digestive tracts? Pharynx
The vocal cords attach to what cartilaginous structures in the larynx? Arytenoid Cartilages
What are the convoluted passageways in the nose that conduct air between the nostrils and pharynx called? Nasal Passageways
What are the thin, scroll-like bones that fill most of the space in the nasal cavity called? Nasal turbinates (aka nasal conchae)
What are the microscopic, thin-walled sacs in the lung, that are surrounded by networks of capillaries called? Alveoli
What is the outpouching of the nasal passage that is housed within a space in a skull bone called? Paranasal Sinuses
What is also referred to as a subdivision of the lung? Lobes of the lung
What are the two steps needed for respiration to take place in an animal's body and where do they occur? External respiration - occurs in the lungs & Internal respiration - occurs all over the body
Why is internal respiration consider to be the business end of respiration? Because it's the means by which the body's cells receive the O2 they need to get rid of the waste CO2 they prodcue
What are the secondary functions that the respiratory functions perform that are important to an animal's well-being? Voice production, body temperature regulation, acid-base balance regulation, and the sense of smell
In addition to the larynx and vocal cords what structures enhance phonation? The thorax (chest cavity), nose, mouth, pharynx(throat), and sinuses contribute resonance & other characteristics to the vocal sounds
Why is the Acid-base balance an important homeostatic mechanism in the body? For normal chemical reactions to occur in the cells, the relative acidity or alkalinity of their environment must be controlled carefully.
How does the respiratory system contribute to the process of acid-base control? It does this by it's ability to influence the amount of CO2 in the blood, the more CO2 there is the in the blood the lower the blood pH & the more acidic the blood.
True or False: The nasal passages are just simple tubes. False, their linings are convoluted & full of twists and turns because of the presence of turbinates
What are the turbinates? two scroll-like bones covered with nasal epithelium that occupy most of the lumen of the nasal passageways
How are the type of cells lining the nasal passages critical to their function? It consist of pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia projecting from the cell surfaces into a layer of mucus. An extensive layer of complex blood vessels lies just below the surface. This helps to warm, humidify, and filter the air
How can sinuses be clinically significant? They become inflamed and swollen as a result of allergies, infections, tumors, & so on. The openings may swell shut or become plugged with inflammatory debris in which case fluids build up and the pressure can be painful.
Why is it easy to choke if an animal tries to swallow and breathe at the same time? Because the pharynx is the common passage way for the respiratory & digestive tracts it must allow for both breathing and swallowing so timing is everything. If you try to swallow while breathing it may enter the lungs.
What are the three main functions of the larynx? Aside from its role as part of the upper airway, the larynx has 3 main functions: voice production, prevention of foreign material being inhaled, & control of airflow to and from the lungs.
True or False: Roaring (in horses) is actually due to a paralysis. True, its scientific name is laryngeal hemiplegia & it means paralysis of half of the larynx and is actually paralysis of the muscles that tighten the arytenoid cartilages & vocal cords on one side of the larynx (usually the left)
What is the reason for the variation of techniques when passing ET tubes for different species? The ability to visualize the soft palate
What can aspiration of foreign material in an anesthetized patient cause? Aspiration pneumonia
Why must we protect an animal from aspiration during anesthetization? Because the loose their swallowing reflex as they become anesthetized & due to position can often inhale foreign material into their lungs such as regurgitated stomach contents
What is the substance in thin layer of fluid that lines each alveolus and what does it do? Surfactant, it helps reduce surface tension & prevents alveolar collapse as they move in and out during breathing
True or False: The lungs of the fetus are nonfunctional at birth. True, because the fetus floats in fluid. They develop along with everything else, but it isn't until after birth that alveoli expand into their saclike shapes
What muscles are responsible for expiration? Abdominals and Internal intercostals
What muscles are responsible for inspiration? External intercostals and the diaphragm
How do the external intercostals cause inspiration? They increasing the thoracic cavity and drawing air into the lungs.
How do the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles cause expiration? They decrease the thoracic cavity forcing air out of the lungs
The quantity of air involved in respiration can be described by what four terms? Tidal Volume, Minute Volume, Residual Volume
What is Tidal Volume? The volume of air inspired and expired during one breath
What is Minute Volume? the volume of air inspired and expired during 1 minute
What is Residual Volume? The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration
How does partial pressure of gasses explain how and why respiratory gasses diffuse? Gasses will diffuse from high concentrations to low concentrations so the amount of O2 will move where there are lower amounts of O2 and same for CO2
How do the voluntary respiratory muscles carry out the seemingly automatic activity of breathing? Within the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata the level of CO2, O2, and ph of the blood are monitored and when one of them is out of balance the brain triggers actions such as sighing or yawning to modify our breathing and change the levels
What stimulates coughing? Irritation & foreign matter in the trachea or bronchi
What stimulates sneezing? Irritation in the nasal passages
What stimulates yawning? O2 being too low in the blood, also possibly boredom, drowsiness, and fatigue
What stimulates sighing? It may be a mild corrective action when the blood level of O2 gets too low or CO2 gets too high, it may also serve to expand the lungs more than the normal breath pattern does
Created by: Adeprey4311