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Nutrition & Sport Performance Final

What are the two major fluid compartments in the body? Extracellular fluid (ECF) Intracellular fluid (ICF)
What does extracellular fluid consist of? Plasma (intravascular) Interstitial fluid (Intercellular)
Intracellular fluid is what percent range of water storage? 60-65%
The adult body is _____% water by weight, females vs males? 60% - Females: 8 gallons (30L) Males: 11 gallons (42L)
What is the percent range that people can range from? Lean vs Obese? 40 - 70% Lean = 70% ; Obese = 40%
What is Euhydration? Normal level of body water
What is Hyperhydration? Excess body water?
What is Hypohydration? Low body water
What is Dehydration? The process of losing body water and going from a state of euhydration to hypohydration
What is aquaporin water channels? Membrane proteins that allow water to move in and out of the cell
What is Osmolality? The amount or concentration of dissolved substance, knows as solutes
What are the solutes that affect osmolality in the body? Glucose, proteins and electrolytes (Na+)
What is tonicity? What is is also referred to? Tension or pressure applied by a solute in compartments ; also called osmotic pressure
What is isotonic? Compartments have qual osmotic pressure, no water movement
What is hypertonic? "Pulls" water in
What is hypotonic? Water "pulled" out
Water lost during exercise comes from where? The intravascular compartment (plasma)
What is the hypothalamus? A small structure in the brain that has receptors
What are osmoreceptors? Receptors in the hypothalamus that monitor osmolality
When plasma becomes hypertonic, the hypothalamus signals what to do what? The pituitary gland to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
ADH or antidiuretic hormone stimulates what to do what? The kidneys to conserve water so that osmolality of the plasma is maintained
What are the two primary functions water serves for active people? 1. Regulated body temperature 2. Maintains optimal cardiac output during exercise
What are the 3 major electrolytes? Sodium, Chloride and Potassium
What is aldosterone? A hormone secreted bt the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ and K+ at the kidneys
Low blood Na+ does what? Stimulates the release of aldosterone and the kidneys excrete less
High blood K+ does what? Makes the kidneys excrete more via urine
What is a normal body temperature? About 98.6 degrees
What is normal body temperature at rest? 97-99 degrees
Body temperature is controlled by what? The autonomic division on the nervous system (Hypothalamus)
What are the two major adjustments that occur then body temperature increase? Increased blood flow to skin (heat loss via radiation) and Sweating (heat loss via evaporation
Hyperthermia can occur during excise when? When exercising during excessive hear and or when you have severe dehydration
When body temperature increase, blood flow is redirected to the skin for what 2 things? 1. allows heat loss via evaporation and radiation 2. dehydration decreases the capacity to thermoregulate
Athletes sweat rates can reach what for strenuous exercise in hear and low intensity in heat? strenuous: 2-3 L per hour = 4.4 pounds low intensity: 1-1.5L per hour = 2.2 pounds
What is the rule for recovery of sweat loss? replace 150% of fluid lost in sweat for each lb lost drink 24 ounces
Acclimatization to heat takes how long? 10-14 days
How do you get acclimatized to heat? Train in the heat but reduce volume and intensity train for a hot event in a cold area (indoors, no fans & extra clothes)
Physiologyical adaptations to heat acclamation include what 3 things? 1. Increases plasma volume 2. Less reliance on carbs, more fat at sub maximal intensities 3. 30% increase in sweat rate and starts at lower body temp
What 2 things does increased plasma volume do? increases stroke volume improves blood flow to skin and muscles
What does a 30% increase in sweat rate do? reduced Na+ in sweat and other electrolytes/minerals
What are the 3 main ingredients in sports drinks? What is is called? Water Carbs and electrolytes : Carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES)
Conventional sports drinks are composed of what % carbs? 5-10%
What are the 5 facts that influence gastric emptying and intestinal absorption? 1. fluid volume 2. osmolality 3. carb type and concentration 4. exercise intensity 5. presence of glucose and Na+
Larger fluid volume = ? Faster rate of gastric emptying
Lower osmolality = ? Faster rate of gastric emptying an intestinal absorption
What are the factors that increase osmolality? Amount of carbs, electrolytes, artificial colors, artificial flavors, artificial sweeteners and preservatives
Why is 2-6% with more than one type of carbs ideal? There is a higher concentration and using only one type of carb slows both gastric emptying and intestinal absorption
High intensity exercise = ? Slower rate of gastric emptying
The presence of glucose an Na+ enhances what? Intestinal absorption of water
When rehydration is the main goal the ideal osmolality of a sports drink should be what? greater than or equal to 280 mOsmol: L
What is hyponatremia? A condition of below normal of below normal levels : less than 135 mmol
Who do you get hyponatremia? overconsumption of water/fluids
When does hyponatremia mostly occur when? During endurance events
What are the 5 signs and symptoms of hyponatremia? <130mmol Bloating, puffiness of hands and feet, nausea, vomiting, headache
What are the 5 signs and symptoms of severe hyponatremia? <120mmol Seizures, coma, respiratory arrest, brain damage, death
What are the 8 risk factors of hyponatremia? excessive drinking of fluids before during and after events considerable weight gain during event slower finishers females low body weight heat unacclimatized;poorly trained salty sweaters chrionic NSAID use; affect kidney function
What does "my personal sports drink" consist of? 5-6 cups water 1/2 lime juiced 3 tablespoons sugar 1.4 teaspoon salt (600mg)
What % of men and women are dissatisfied with their current body weight? 40% of men and 55% of women
What % of first year male and female college students desire to change their current body weight? What do females want vs males? 85% Females: leanness ; Males:muscularity
What is the ideal body weight? It depends on physical performance and health
What is the Acadmany of Nutritions and Dietetics % body fat for obesity in men and women? men = > 25% women = >30%
What are the 2 considerations of body fat and obesity? people who have high body fat may not get health problems if they are active and location of fat matters
What is essential amount of fat for basic needs for men and women? men = 2-5% women =12-15%
Energy balance regulation via the hypothalamus: Plays a role in hunger/satiety
What are the 4 things affected by the hypothalamus via energy balance regulation? stimulation of senses (smell,taste, sound) stomach fullness blood nutrient levels hormones and other substances
What are the 3 things affected by blood nutrient levels? glucostatic lipostatic aminostatis theroies
What is adipokines? hormone-like substance release from adipocytes (leptin and gherlin)
What is leptin? produced by adipocytes >>more body fat = more leptin >>less body fat = less leptin inhibits production of neuropeptide (NPY_
NPY increase what? appetite and decreases energy expenditure
What is the set point theory? individual is programmed to be a certain body weight
What if the body is resistant to leptin? people believe this is the primary cause of high obesity rates in the US
Discovery of leptin supports the set point theory because? gain signifiant body fat = more leptin = less NPY = decreased appetite and increased energy expenditure = body restored back to normal
What is ghrelin? A hormone secreted by the stomach
What does gherkin do? stimulated the hypothalamic hunger center stimulated release of dopamine
What is dopamine? a neurotransmitter that stimulates the brain's pleasure centers
More dopamine release = greater sense of pleasure
What are the two ways fat is deposited into the body? hyperplasia and hypertrophy
What does hyperplasia do? increase in number of adipocytes
What does hypertrophy do? increase in size of existing adipocytes
Genetics may explain what % of obesity? 25-40%
First 4 contributing factors to obesity? >> portion sizes of food have increased >> high calorie empty calorie foods >> liquid calories & sugary drinks (22% of daily calories for US) >> sugar intake
Last 4 contributing factors to obesity? >> decreased levels of physical activity >> less sleep more stress >> built environment (city infrastucture) >> climate control
What is gynoid obesity? characterized by fat accumulation in the gluteal-hip-thigh regions
What are the 2 issues with gynoid obesity? more resistant to weight loss compared to android obesity more subcutaneous fat
What is android obesity? characterized by fat accumulation in the abdominal area
What is the issue with android obesity? more visceral fat
High levels of visceral fat and android obesity increase risk of what? metabolic syndrome
What are the 5 things associated with metabolic syndrome? increased wait circumference (>40in men, >35in women) elevated serum triglycerides (>150mg) lowered HDL - cholesterol elevated blood pressure (>130 systolic >85 distolic) elevated fasting blood glucose (>100mg)
1 pound of fat = ? 454 g (9kcal)
1 pound of pure body fat = ? 3,500 kcal
Body fat contains what 3 things? protein, minerals and water
Loss of body fat costs ? 3,500 kcal (must consider individual variability)
Recommended maximal amount of weight loss per week? adults: 2lbs children: 1lb
Practical goal of weight loss per week? adults: 1lb children: 1/2 lb
Healthy weight loss = lower body fat while maintaining or increasing fat free mass with exercise
Calculating amount of weight loss equation: fat free mass in pounds ------------------------------ (1 - desired body fat %)
What is RMR? Resting metabolic rate
To lose 1 pound per week requires how much of a deficit? 500 kcal per day deficit
What are the 5 general recommendations for weight loss? >> small caloric deficit >> high protein, moderate fat, low carb >> frequent meals >> incude exercise >> est. realistic long range and short range goals
What are the 2 reasons several smaller meals are better? >> better glycemic index control >> nitrogen retention
2 types of exercise for weight loss? >> aerobic exercise to burn calories and mobilize fat >> resistance training maintain/increase FFM (low weight, high rep 6-12RM)
Long range weight loss goals = lose 10-15% body weight over 4-6 months
short range weight loss goals = lose 1-2 lbs per week
What is the cunningham equation? RMR = 500 +22 (FFM) in kg
Initial weight loss may come from what? Decrease body stores from carbs and water loss
We can store how much glycogen and where? 1500 - 2000 kcal of glycogen in our muscles and liver
Complete glycogen depletion? Water store in glycogen? 500 g 1,500 g
Total weight loss from carbs and water but no fat? 4.4 pounds
Loss from water alone? Loss from glycogen depletion? 3.3 pounds 1.1 pounds
Which is better exercise or caloric restriction? caloric restriction
Weight loss supplements make how much money? $2 billion a year
what % of men and women have taken some form of weight loss supplement? men = 10% women = 21%
What are the 3 common claims of weight loss supplements? reduce macronutrient absorption decrease appetite increase metabolism and thermogenesis
On average how many ingredients are in a weight loss supplement? 10 but up to 96
What is unknown about supplements? - effects of the combination of all ingredients -effects of ingredients with prescription meds in combination with certain medical conditions
What are the 5 most common ingredients in weight loss supplements? ephedra synephrine green tea (or extract) caleus forskohlii caffeine (guarana, yerba mate, kola nut)
What is ephedra? - type of plant that contain ephedrine - used in over the counter meds as decongestant and bronchodilator to treat asthma, increases metabolic rate by 5% - also called Ma Huang
What are the 3 adverse side effects of ephedra? - hypertension - hyperglycemia - increased risk of heat stroke
News related to ephedra? banned by most sports in the NFL, NCAA and MLB banned by FDA as dietary supplement
What is synephrine? extract from bitter orange - safe alternative to ephedrine - may increase energy expenditure and lipolysis - suppress appetite
What are the 7 possible side effects of synephrine? increased blood pressure chest pain anxiety ventricular fibrillation ischemic stroke myocardial infarction death
What does green tea and green tea extract contain? caffeine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
What does green tea do? may increase metabolic rate and lipolysis
What are the 5 possible side effects of green tea extract? NONE WITH GREEN TEA nausea constipation abdominal discomfort increased blood pressure liver damage
What is coleus forskohlii supposed to do? promote weight loss by enhancing lipless and reducing appetite
What are guarana, yerba mate, and kola nut considered? caffeine
What is caffeine? A central nervous system stimulant
What are the 2 things caffeine does to the body? - increases energy expenditure and lipolysis - tolerance and habitual intake reduces effectiveness
FDA states how much caffeine is "safe"? 400 mg per day
To gain weight (lean body mass) requires what 3 things? - excess kcal intake - adequate protein intake -proper training stimulus
What is an unrealistic goal of gaining weight? to gain lean body mass without ANY additional fat mass
What are the first 3 steps of gaining weight? >> set realistic goals and time frame >>determine energy levels for weight maintenance >> assess daily energy expenditure
What is a realistic goal and time frame? 20% increase in lean body mass in the first year for young athletes. 1-3% per year for advanced trainees
The exact number of kcal to gain 1 pound of muscle is? unknown
What is the estimated requirement to gain one pound of muscle? minimum of 2,300 up to 3,500 addition kcal
What is the general "rule of thumb" to increase energy intake? by 400 to 500 kcal per day
Focus on what 2 things for optimal macro composition? - nutrient dense carbs (whole grains, fruits, veggie, legumes) - high quality protein (whey, egg, soy, milk, animal protein)
What should you consume less of for optimal macro composition? healthy fats because they can be satiating resulting in lower total kcal comp
2 General recommendations of nutrient timing of protein? - 20 g post training including 10g BCAA's - small amounts throughout the day to meet total needs
What does consumption of protein post strength training do? increases muscle protein synthesis and decreases protein breakdown (net muscle protein accretion, "gainz")
Carbs post workout do what? promotes repletion of muscle glycogen and uptake of amino acids
What is the ratio of carbs to protein post workout? 4:1 Carb to protein
What are the 3 basics of gaining weight? increase total energy intake (most important) consume adequate protein focus on resistance training (limit aerobic training)
What is the adequate protein intake? 1.6 to 1.7 g per day
What is the rep range of muscle hypertrophy? 6-12 rep range
What are the other 3 things to consider while trying to gain weight? modifiable factors (caffeine, smoking) non modifiable factors (hormones, genetics) not enough sleep (gains occur during rest)
How to calculate percent increase new body weight - original body weight / original body weight x 100
Created by: Alyssa.Kunzman