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Muscles and bones quiz 2 review

What is the function of the muscles? Movement, posture, heat production
Is skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary? Voluntary (requires a nerve supple)
Is skeletal muscle striated? yes (cross striations)
How many nuclei do skeletal muscle cells contain?? Multi nucleated, can have up to 100
Describe the shape of skeletal muscle cells Thin, thread like, running parallel to each other
Each muscle fiber consists of what? many myofibrils of actin and myosin myofilaments
By what means do the muscle fibers contract? the actin and myosin myofilaments slide past each other
What provides the energy needed for a muscle contraction to occur? ATP Adenosine triphosphate
What is the all or none principle? States that muscle fibers will contract completely or not at all
Is cardiac muscle voluntary or involuntary? involuntary ( influenced by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, not required to function
How many nuclei are presenet in a cardiac muscle cell? single nucleus
Describe the shape of cardiac muscle single, shorter, multi-branched cells
The cells of cardiac muscle are joined together by what? What function do they serve? intercalated disks, aid in conducting nerve impulse from cell to cell
Is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary? involuntary
How many nuclei are present in smooth muscle cells? single nucleus
Does smooth muscle have cross striations?? no
Describe the shape of smooth muscle cells spindle shaped
Where will you fine visceral smooth muscle? Digestive tract
Where will you find multi-unit smooth muscle? Iris of the eye, small blood vessels, lungs
Aponeuroses sheets of fibrous connective tissue
What is the origin of the muscle? the more stable of a muscles attachment sites
What is the insertion of a muscle? Site that undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts
What is the belly of the muscle? The thick central portion of the muscle
What is a prime mover? A muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desired movement
What is an antagonist? A muscle or muscle groupthat directly opposes the action of a prime mover
What is a synergist? A muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover, and assists in carrying out its action
What is a fixator? Muscles that stabilize joints to allow other movements to take place
What is a thin broad superficial muscle found in the fascia just below the skin? Cutaneous muscle
What is the function of cutaneous muscles? to twitch the skin
Do the cutaneous muscles attach to bones?? little to no attachment to the bones
What are the functions of the head an neck muscles? control facial expressions, enable mastication, move the eyes and ears, support the head, allow the head and neck to flex, extend, and move laterally
What does the masseter muscle do? closes the jaw
What do the splenius and trapezius muscles do? extend the head and neck
What does the brachiocephalicus muscle do? extends the head and neck, also pulls the front leg forward
What does the sternocephalicus muscle do? flexes the head and neck
What are the functions of the abdominal muscles? Support abdominal organs, help flex the back, aid is activities which involve straining, play a role in respiration
What are the layers of the abdominal muscles? external abdominal oblique muscles, internal abdominal oblique muscles, rectus abdominis muscle, transverse abdominis muscle
What is another name for the linea alba? White line
What are the 3 divisions of the skeletal system? Axial, appendicular, visceral
What are the functions of bone? Support, Protection, Leverage, Storage, Blood cell formation
What are the 2 types of bone? Cancellous (spongy) & Compact
What is cancellous bone composed of? Tiny spicules of bone that appear randomly arranged. What occupies the space between the spicules? BONE MARROW
Compact bone is made up of what? Haversian systems that run lengthwise with the bone
What do Haversian systems consist of?? concentric layers of ossified bone matrix arranged around a central canal which allows blood and lymph vessels & nerves to run lengthwise with the bone
What is the periosteum? Thin fibrous skin like layer surrounding the long area of bones
What does the periosteum contain? Osteoblasts
What are the Volkmanns Canals? Tiny canals running through the bone matrix, connecting blood vessels from the periosteum to the Haversian canals
What are the Haversian canals? The center canal that runs lengthwise in bones containing blood and lymph vessels and nerves that supply nutrients to the bone
What is the endosteum? fibrous membrane that lines the hollow interiors of bones.
What does the endosteum contain? Osteoblasts
What is the nutrient foramina? Large channels in large bones which allow large blood vessels to pass carrying blood to and from the blood marrow
What is the lacunae Small crevices that form the matrix
What is contained in the lacunae?? Osteocytes and chondrocytes
What are the canaliculi? The connection points between developing bone cells
Define Osteoblast cells that create new bone
Define Osteocytes Mature bone cells found in the lacunae (spaces) of ossified bone matrix
Define Osteoclast Large multi nucleated cells of bone, they break down and smooth out bone. They are the macrophages of the bone, they "eat" remove/remodel the bone
How does a bone cell function? Osteoblast secretes a soft matrix of soft protein and carbs which hardens due to infiltration of Ca&Phosphates? Osteoblasts are trapped in the hardened matrix (canalculi) and now serves as an osteocyte, the new function is blood production.
The contents of the bone include what 3 things? medullary cavity, red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow
What is the medullary cavity? The center of long bones with storage space
What is the function of red bone marrow? it is a hematopoietic tissue which function to produce red blood cells
What is the function of yellow bone marrow? it is an adipose connective tissue which functions to form fat tissue. it does NOT produce blood cells but can revert back to red bone marrow if needed
What are the 2 types of bone formation? endochondral & intramembranous
Endochondral bone formation begins with what? a cartilage template that develops within the embryo, this cartilage is replaced by what? Osteoblasts
After osteoblasts replace the embryonic cartilage, how is the marrow cavity formed? Osteoclasts remove bone from the diaphysis to form the bone medullary cavity
The narrow band of cartilage that remains after the bone has formed is called what? growth plate
What is the function of the growth plate? to allow the bone to grow and lengthen
What is the primary growth center of endochondral bone formation? Bone develops at the diaphysis as embryonic cartilage rods are gradually removed and bone is created
What is the secondary growth center of endochondral bone formation? bone develops in the epiphysis of the bone
Where are the epiphyseal plates located? between the diaphysis and epiphysis of long bones This is also known as the growth plate
What is the "head" of bones? A somewhat spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone.
What is a facet? A flat articular surface - the joint movement between two facets is a somewhat rocking motion
What is a process? The lumps, bumps, & projections of a bone
What is a fossa? A depression or a sunken area on the surface of a bone
What is a foramen? A hole in the bone
What are the bones of the axial skeleton? those of the head and trunk
What are the bones of the appendicular skeleton? Those of the thoracic and pelvic limbs
What are the bones of the visceral skeleton? Bones formed in the viscera or soft organs such as the os penis, os cordis, and os rostri
What animals have an os penis? Dog, walrus, raccoon, and beavers
What animals have an os rostri? swine - it's in their nose
What animals have an os cordis? Cattle & sheep, it's in their heart
What does ATP stand for? adenosine triphosphate
What are the A-bands composed of? myosin
What are the I-bands composed of? actin
What divides the I-band? Z-line
In a muscle contraction which gets smaller the I-band or the A-band? I-band
What are the 4 types of synovial joints? Hinge, gliding, pivot, ball & socket
What are the 6 types of synovial joint movement? Abduction/Adduction, flexion/extension, rotational/circumduction
What is the most common Cruciate ligament injury? Canine Cruciate Rupture - most common in the REAR
What are the clinical signs of Canine Cruciate Rupture? difficulty rising from a sit, trouble jumping, decreased activity, lameness, muscle atrophy, decreased range of motion of the knee joint,a popping noise, swelling on the inside of the shin bone, pain, stiffness
What are the clinical signs of Hip Dysplasia? Bunny hopping, reluctance or difficulty rising or jumping
What are the treatment options for Canine Cruciate Ruptures? Exercise restriction, weight loss, anti-inflammatory drugs, Surgery (TPLO-Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy or TTA-Tibial Tuberosity Advancement)
What are the treatment options for Hip Dysplasia? Anti-inflammatory drugs, Glucosamine, Surgery (FHO-Femoral Head Ostectomy, TPO-Triple Pelvic osteotomy, or THR-Total Hip Replacement)
What is the Chemistry of a Contraction? Nerve Impulse -> Acetylcholine release -> Ca release -> ATP converts to ADP -> Energy release -> Power stroke -> ADP uses CP to convert back to ATP -> CP recharges ATP -> ATP helps pump calcium back into the sarcoplasmic Reticulum -> muscle fiber relaxes
What is Catabolism? The breakdown of nutrient molecules to produce ATP and CP
Which type of exercise is used when oxygen demand exceeds the supply? Anaerobic
Which type of exercise is results in the maximum amount of energy being extracted from each glucose molecule? Aerobic
Which type of exercise results in lactic acid? Anaerobic
Which type of exercise is more efficient? Aerobic
What converts the lactic acid back into glucose? The liver
What are the causes of Hip dysplasia? Genetics, Diet
What age can Hip Dysplasia be detected at? 18 mos, at 2 years OFA(orthopedic foundation for animals) radiographs are taken
What are the joint classifications Diathrosis/synovial, Fiberous/Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis/cartilaginous
What is Oxygen stored as? Myglobin
What is glucose stored as? glucogon
Created by: Adeprey4311



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