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VTT Lab Procedures

Quiz Review #1

Define Cell envelope: complex external cell covering that includes the cell wall and the cell membrane. The majority of bacteria have them.
Define Pathogenicity: Disease-causing potential of a microorganism. Virulence.
Define Prokaryote Unicellular organism. Does not have a nucleus and does not have membrane bound specialized organelles
Define Eukaryote Cells that contain a true nucleus which holds the genetic information (DNA) in the chromosomes
What is an endospore? Intracellular refractile bodies that some bacteria can form when cultured. The bacterial spores are heat, chemical, desiccation, and radiation resistant. The hard shell of the endospore is made up of calcium.
What does it mean when a bacterium is said to be Aerobic? bacteria that require oxygen to survive and grow
What does it mean when a bacterium is said to be Anaerobic? Bacteria that do not need oxygen to survive
What does it mean when a bacterium is said to be Facultative Anaerobes? organisms that can survive in the absence of oxygen, but their growth is limited
What does it mean when a bacterium is said to be Microaerophilic? organisms that thrive in reduced oxygen concentrations
Define Ubiquitous organism that is found everywhere in the atmosphere (soil, water, vegetation, etc...)
Define oppurtunistic An organism that does not normally cause disease, but will cause disease if it is introduced into an unusual location OR in a compromised host (very young or very old/immunosuppressed/ chemotherapy/steroids/IVF/urinary catheters
What is meant by Obligate? A bacteria that is never part of normal flora and causes disease.
What is a Fomite? An inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents may be conveyed
What is meant by Nosocomial? Means it was acquired in the hospital.
What is Virulence? A specific pathogen’s ability to invade a host’s tissues. Determined by virulence factors. Pathogenicity.
What is meant when a bacterium is said to be Virulent? It has an increased ability to produce disease.
What does MIC stand for? Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
What is the Zone of Inhibition? An area of no bacterial growth around an antimicrobial disk that indicates some sensitivity of the organism to the particular antimicrobial. The clear area around an antibiotic disk
What is MIC? The minimum dose of an antibiotic required to kill a certain type of bacteria
What is the McFarland standard? applies to the turbidity of a saline and bacteria mixture
What chemicals (in the bacteria) make a gram negative bacteria stain gram negative? Gram negative bacteria lack peptoglycons and don'tt take up the first part of the staining process so you have to counterstain which identifies the lipopolysaccharides (the molecules on the cell envelope of gram negative bacterium).
How does the chemistry of gram negative bacteria influence disease? They contain lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) which can cause serious reactions such as fevers and shock as seen in meningitis and typhoid fever.
What chemicals (in the bacterial) make a gram positive stain gram positive? Peptidoglycans which are molecules on the outside of the cell envelope that bind with the first part of the stain.
What type of bacterium is more penetrable to molecules thus more susceptible to antibiotics? Gram positive bacterium
What type of bacterium stains pink? Gram Negative Bacterium
What type of bacterium stains purple? Gram Positive Bacterium
How do endospores affect pathogenicity? The formation of endospores increase pathogenicity by enabling the bacteria to protect its genetic material from being destroyed. When the conditions become favorable the spore is able to re-emerge and continue infecting and causing disease
What is an Incubation period? the period of time from the initial infection to when clinical signs/symptoms appear. It is approximately 24-48 hrs
Define Endemic: An organism that remains in a certain geographical area
Define Epidemic: A sudden increase of disease cases.
Where do endotoxins come from? Endotoxins are the lipopolysaccharide of the GN bacteria. They are produced & carried in one animal, they are released when the bacteria begins to die and are then excreted into the environment via urine or feces for the next animal to pick up.
What type of Blood Agar hemolysis is an incomplete breakdown (lysis) of RBCs (greenish brown zone around colony)? Alpha
What type of Blood Agar hemolysis is a complete breakdown(lysis) of RBCs (clearing around a colony of bacteria? Beta
What type of Blood Agar hemolysis has no breakdown (hemolysis) of RBCs (no color change)? Gamma
S.equi Streptococcus equi "Strangles" (GPC/Alpha hemolytic)
S.canis Steptococcus canis (GPC/Beta hemolytic)
S.pyogenes Streptococcus pyogenes (GPC/Beta hemolytic)
S.aureus Staphylococcus aureus (GPC /Beta hemolytic)
B. Anthracis Bacillus anthracis (GPR/Gamma hemolytic)
What are 2 ways we can remove oxygen from an incubator? Special Gas Pack Pouch or A jar with a candle works just fine too
What are the steps for proper incubation of media plates? Set incubator to 37*C Incubate plates upside down to avoid condensation Label with Date of streaking, patient ID, and specimen type Incubate 24-48 hrs If anaerobe is suspected remove O2 from incubator
What is the ideal temperature for bacterial growth? 37*C
What bacteria is detected via acid-fast staining? Mycobacterium
What color are acid-fast bacteria? hot pink or fuschia
What color are nonacid-fast bacteria? light blue
C. tetani Clostridium tetani “Tetnus” (GPR/Beta hemolytic)
E. coli Escherichia coli (GNR)
Shigella spp. Shigella species “Shigellosis” (EGNR)
Brucella spp. Brucella species “Bangs disease” (GNR/oxidase positive)
B. bronchiseptica Bordetella bronchiseptica “Kennel Cough” (GNR/oxidase positive)
Pasturella spp. Pasturella species
Leptospira spp. Leptospira species “Leptospirosis” (E. Spirochetes)
B. burgdoferi Borrelia burgdorferi “Lyme disease” (E. Spirochetes)
Chlamydia psittaci “Psittacosis” (Rickettsial)
Mycoplasma haemofelis (Previously hemobart) “Feline Infectious Anemia” (Ricketsial)
How are bacterium classified? By their requirement for oxygen, their shape and arrangement
Define Virulent: An increased ability to produce disease.
What type of bacterium stains pink? Gram Negative Bacterium
What type of bacterium stains purple? Gram Positive Bacterium
What is the most common basic nutrient media? Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA)
What are 2 ways we can remove oxygen from an incubator? Special Gas Pack Pouch or A jar with a candle works just fine too
What is the Mueller hinton diffusion method? It is a direct antibiotic sensitivity test where split plates are common.
What is the Kirby Bauer Agar Diffusion method? An antibiotic sensitivity test
What is the most common antibiotic sensitivity test? Kirby Bauer Agar Diffusion method
What does the catalase test differentiate between? Staph and strep. Staph will be positive and bubble while strep will not.
What does the Coagulase test differentiate between? The different types of catalase positive bacterium.
What do the Indole and Oxidase tests tell us? If Indole or oxidase are present and help us to differentiate between bacterium such as e. coli and pseudomonas
What type of media is Blood Agar? Enriched Media
What type of blood is in a blood agar? Sheep’s
How much sheep’s blood does a blood agar include? 5%
How does the Eosin Methylene Blue media work? It selects for gram negative and inhibits gram positive. It differentiates between enteric bacterium. E. coli will ferment while Salmonella and Shigella do not which allows for differentiating between them.
How does the Hektoan Enteric Agar work? Selects for gram neg pathogens and then differentiates between sugar fermenters Salmonella colonies will be black because they don't ferment sugar and Shigella will be green (the agar will also be green), E. coli turns bright yellow/orange
How does the MacConkey Agar work? It selects for GN bacterium and contains salt that inhibit GP bacteria. Indicator turns agar (normally milky/clear) pink and milky during lactose fermentation.
How does Phenyl Ethyl Agar (PEA) work? It selects for gram positive by inhibiting gram negative bacteria.
Created by: Adeprey4311



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