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A&P

Powerpoint #1

QuestionAnswer
Define Anatomy: The study of the form and structure of the body and its parts
Define Physiology: The study of the functions of the body and it's parts
What are the two Approaches to the study of Anatomy and Physiology? Microscopic, Macroscopic
What is the difference between microscopic and macroscopic anatomy and physiology? Microscopic refers to the study of the minute structures such as cells, while macroscopic refers to the structures of the gross anatomy and physiology or the tissues and systems.
What is meant by Regional study of anatomy and physiology? It's the study of individual regions of the body such as the neck or abdomen
What is meant by Systematic study of anatomy and physiology? This is the study of the systems and how the tissues and organs work together such as with the nervous system or the skeletal system.
What is meant by Bilateral symmetry? That the left and right halves of an animal's body are essentially mirror images of each other
What does the dorsal body cavity contain? The central nervous system
What does the ventral body cavity contain? Most of the viscera of the body
What are the levels of organization within the body? Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems
Define cells: basic functional units of animal life
Define Tissues: groups of specialized cells
Define Organs: groups of tissues that work together for common purposes
Define Organ Systems: groups of organs that are involved in a common set of activities
What are the 4 primary classifications of tissues? Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue
What are the functions of Epithelial tissue? Sheets of cells that cover and line other tissues, Protect underlying tissues and may act to filter biochemical substances, May absorb, secrete, or excrete biochemical substances, May play a role in the reception of sensory input
What are the characteristics of epithelial cells? Epithelial cells are polar. Lateral surfaces are connected to neighboring cells by junctional complexes. Epithelial cells are avascular. Most epithelial cells are innervated.
What direction do the apical surfaces the epithelial cell face? It faces the lumen or outside of the organ
What direction do the basal surfaces the epithelial cell face? It faces the basal lamina and blood vessels
What are the three main types of cellular junctions? Tight junctions, Desmosomes, Gap junctions
What are tight junctions? Formed by the fusion of the outermost layers of the plasma membranes of adjoining cells formed by membrane proteins
What is Homeostasis? The maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in the body. All of the physiological process that actively maintain balance in the various structures, functions, and properties of the body
Which junction is like a ziplock? tight junction
Which junction is like velcro? Desmosomes
What are desmosome junctions? Mechanical coupling formed by filaments that interlock with one another
Tonofilaments extend from the plaque to where? Into the cytoplasm
Where are desmosome junctions found? Found in tissues that undergo repeated episodes of tension and stretching (skin, heart, uterus)
What links the epithelial cells to the basement membrane Hemidesmosomes
What are gap junctions? Tubular channel proteins (connexons) that extend from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of another
Which type of junction allow for the exchange and passage of ions and nutrients Gap junctions
Where are gap junctions found? Found in intestinal epithelial cells, the heart, and smooth muscle tissue
What is the basement membrane? Meshwork of fibers that cements the epithelial cell to the underlying connective tissue
True or False: The basement membrane is also called the basal lamina. True, however this is incorrect as they are not the same thing
True or False: The basement membrane varies in thickness. True
What is the purpose of the basement membrane? Helps prevent the cell from being torn off by intraluminal pressures and acts as a partial barrier between the epithelial cell and the underlying connective tissue
How do the surfaces of epithelial cells vary? Surfaces of epithelial cells vary depending on where they are located and what role they play in the function of the tissue
What are 4 types of surfaces epithelial cells can have? Smooth, Microvilli (brush border), Cilia, Keratin
How is epithelial tissue classified? By the number of layers of cells, the shape of the cells, and the presence of surface specializations
What are some characteristics of simple squamous epithelial cells? Fragile, flat, thin, and smooth
What are some characteristics of simple cuboidal epithelial cells? They are elongated and closely packed together and their nuclei are aligned in a row at the base of the cell near the basement membrane
Where are simple squamous epithelial cells found? They are found lining surfaces involved in the passage of either gas or liquid
Where are simple cuboidal epithelial cells found? They are found in many excretory ducts as well as in the digestive tract
Where is Stratified Squamous Epithelium found? They occur in areas of the body subject to mechanical and chemical stresses
What is the purpose of stratified squamous epithelium? Protect underlying tissues
Stratified cuboidal epithelium usually have how many layers? 2
What is the purpose of stratified cuboidal epithelium? Protect underlying tissues
Where is Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium found? Found primarily along large excretory ducts
Where is Stratified Columnar Epithelium found? Found only in select parts of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and along some excretory ducts
What is the purpose of stratified columnar epithelium? Secretion and protection
Where is Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium found? Found in respiratory tract and in portions of the male reproductive tract
Where are the nuclei found in Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium? Cell nuclei are found at different levels across the length of the tissue
In what type of tissue do some cells do not reach the luminal surface ? Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
What is Transitional Epithelium? Stratified epithelium with a basal layer of cuboidal or columnar cells and a superficial layer of cuboidal or squamous cells
Where is transitional epithelium found? In areas of the body required to expand and contract as part of their normal function
What is Glandular Epithelium? Groups of cells that manufacture and discharge a secretion
How are glands classified? Presence or absence of ducts, Number of cells that compose them, Shape of the secreting ducts, Complexity of the glandular structure, Type of secretion they produce, Manner in which the secretion is stored and discharged
What type of glands do not have ducts or tubules and whose secretions are distributed throughout the body? Endocrine
What type of glands produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream or the lymphatic system Endocrine
What type of glands discharge secretions via ducts directly into local areas (except for goblet cell) Exocrine
What type of exocrine gland is unicellular, ductless, and composed of modified columnar epithelial cell? Globlet
Where are globlet cells found? Among columnar cells of the respiratory and digestive tracts and the conjunctiva of the eye
What do globlet cells produce? They secrete the protein mucin
Multicellular Exocrine Glands are composed of what two things? A secretory unit and a duct
Secretory unit is usually surrounded by what? Connective tissue rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers and may be surrounded by myoepithelial cells that assist with the discharge of secretions into the glandular duct
What are myoepithelial cells? smooth muscle that contract and expel secretions of exocrine cells
How are ducts classified? By whether it is branched or not and the shape of secretory portions
If the main duct is unbranched what type of duct is it? Simple
If the main duct is branched what type of duct is it? Compound
Secretory cells form a long channel of even width are referred to as what? Tubular
Secretory unit forms a rounded sac are referred to as what? Alveolar or acinar
Secretory units possess both tubular and alveolar qualities are referred to as what? Tubuloalveolar or tubuloacinar
What are the three ways exocrine glands can be classified in regards to their type of secretions? Serous, Mucous, Mixed
What type of secretions are watery and contain a high concentration of enzymes? Serous
What type of secretions are thick, viscous, composed of glycoproteins? Mucous
What are the functions of connective tissue? Protects and supports the body and its organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, contributes to healing process, composes the bodies transport medium (blood)
What are the components of connective tissue? Ground substance, Extracellular Fibers, Cells
What is the medium through which cells exchange nutrients and waste with the bloodstream? Ground Substance
What are the characteristics of the ground substance? Amorphous, homogeneous material that ranges in texture from a liquid or gel to a calcified solid
What are the functions of the ground substance? Acts to protect the more delicate cells it envelopes and serves as an effective obstacle for invading microorganisms
What are the three types of extracellular fibers? Collagenous fibers, Reticular fibers, Elastic fibers
What type of extracellular fiber is strong, thick strands of collagen, organized into bundles of long, parallel fibrils composed of bundled microfibrils variable density and arrangement of fibers found in tendons and ligaments also known as white fibers Collagenous fibers
What type of extracellular fiber is thin, delicate, branched networks of collagen provide support (mist net) for highly cellular organs (endocrine glands, lymph nodes, spleen, etc) also found around blood vessels, nerves, muscle fibers, and capillaries Reticular fibers
What type of extracellular fiber is branched networks composed primarily of the protein elastin, composed of coiled bundles of microfibrils and occur in tissues commonly subjected to stretching (vocal cords, lungs, skin, and walls of blood vessels) Elastic fibers
Which type of gland tends to be stinkier? Apocrine
What percent of our sweat glands are apocrine glands? 20%
What percent of our sweat glands are murocrine glands? 80%
What are Fixed Cells? Connective tissue cells that are involved in production and maintenance of the matrix
What are some examples of fixed cells? Fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes, reticular cells
What are transient cells? Connective tissue cells involved in the repair and protection of tissues
What are some examples of transient cells? Leukocytes, mast cells, macrophages
What are some examples of loose connective tissue? Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
What are some examples of dense connective tissue? Dense regular, Dense irregular, Elastic
Where is areolar tissue found? Surrounds every organ; forms the SQ layer that connects skin to muscle; envelopes blood vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes; present in all mucous membranes
What is the predominant cell of areolar tissue and what does it do? Fibroblast which manufactures the elastic, reticular, and collagenous fibers
Which type of tissue is highly vascular? Adipose
Which type of tissue forms the stroma? Reticular Connective
What is the stroma? it's the framework of several organs
What type of connective tissue is composed of tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers and is relatively avascular? Dense Regular connective tissue
Where is dense regular connective tissue found? Can be found in fascial sheets that cover muscles and form together to make up the tendons and ligaments
What type of connective tissue is composed primarily of collagen fibers arranged in thick bundles fibers are interwoven to form a single sheet? Dense Irregular connective tissue
Where is dense irregular connective tissue found? Found in the dermis of the skin and in the fibrous coverings of many organs as well as forming the tough capsule of joints
What type of connective tissue is primarily composed of elastic fibers which may be arranged parallel or in interwoven patterns with fibroblasts and collagenous fibers interspersed? Elastic Connective Tissue
Where is elastic connective tissue found? In spaces between vertebrae and in areas of the body that require stretching (walls of arteries, stomach, bronchi, bladder, etc.)
What are the three types of specialized connective tissue? Cartilage, Blood, Bone
What are the three types of Cartilage? Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage, Fibrocartilage
Where is cartilage found? Found in joints and in the ear, nose, and vocal cords
Is cartilage innervated? No
Is cartilage vascular or avascular? avascular
Where are Chondrocytes located? In hollowed-out pockets in the matrix called lacunae
What is the matrix ground substance made of? Gel of chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and chondronectin
Collagen fibers are most commonly found in the matrix, but what else is also present in varying amounts? Elastic Fibers
What is the most common type of cartilage found in the body? Hyaline Cartilage
What type of cartilage is composed of closely packed collagen and found in joints at the ends of long bones, growth plates of long bones, tracheal rings, and connections of the ribs to the sternum Hyaline Cartilage
What type of cartilage composes most of the embryonic skeleton Hyaline Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is enclosed within what? A perichondrium
What is the most rigid type of cartilage? Hyaline Cartilage
What type of cartilage contains elastic fibers in dense branching bundles that can withstand repeated bending? Elastic Cartilage
What type of cartilage is found in the epiglottis of the larynx and in pinnae of ears of animals? Elastic Cartilage
What type of cartilage lacks a perichondrium and found in spaces between vertebrae of the spine, between bones in the pelvic girdle, and in the knee joint Fibrocartilage
Is bone vascular or avascular? It's well vascularized
What canal contains both a vascular and a nerve supply Haversian canal
What are the channels within the matrix support passage of blood vessels into deeper portions of tissue called? Canaliculi
What cell manufacture the fibers that are part of the matrix? Osteoblast
How are Lacunae and canaliculi created? They are created as the the osteoblasts manufacture the bony matrix
Where do Osteocytes reside? In lacunae.
What is the ground substance of blood? plasma
What is the fibrous component of the blood? protein
What are the cells of the blood? Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, & Thrombocytes
Created by: Adeprey4311