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Food & Fiber

Swine and Camelids Quiz Review

Define Pig: A young swine of either sex that is less than 120 lbs
Define Hog: swine greater than 120 lbs (this is the preferred term)
Define Piglet: An unweaned young pig
Define Shoat: An immature, intact male swine
Define Boar: A mature, intact male swine
Define Barrow: A mature, castrated male swine
Define Gilt: An immature female swine that has never farrowed
Define Sow: A mature female swine that has farrowed
What does "Farrow-to-Finish" mean? That the swine go from birth to market in one place
What does "Farrow-to-Wean" mean? That the swine are raised from farrowing to weaning and sold (birth to 3-5 wks)
What does "Feeder-to-Finish mean? That the swine are raised from weanlings to market.
What are "Breeders"? Purebred hogs for sale to other breeders or farrowing farms
What does it mean if a farm is "SPF"? SPF means Specific Pathogen Free. Usually university herds; free of specific disease; closed herds. These are difficult to maintain.
True or False: Swine are very vocal. True, they squeal and scream
True or False: Swine are not very social creatures. False, very social
True or False: Swine stress easily. True - Porcine Stress Syndrome is a real risk
True or False: Unlike other "herd" animals, with swine if one gets stressed it isn't likely that others will as well. False
True or False: Swine can be aggressive - especially boars. False. Yes they can be aggressive, but it's especially a sow with her piglets - she will go after you.
True or False: Swine's primary means of defense is biting. True, beware of boar with tusks
True or False: Swine are dirty animals. False - They are actually very clean animals with a "dunging pattern"
What is meant by "dunging pattern"? The animals urinate/deficate in moist areas (near water sources)
What is important to remember about animals with a dunging pattern behavior? Food should be placed at the opposite end of their pen away from where they are urinating/deficating
What is rooting behavior? The animal is curious so they "nose" around and dig things up
What is "ringing" and why is it done? It is where we put a ring in the nose to discourage rooting behaviors
What are some important factors in housing swine? Good ventilation/not drafty, Bright/even lighting, adequate space, size/weight grouping, concrete or slotted floors
Why is size/weight grouping and adequate space important? To reduce fighting
Why is reducing fighting so important Increased fighting reduces weight gain
What is an advantage of concrete floors? Ease of cleaning/sanitation
What is a disadvantage of concrete floors? swine can slip in water (Remember Hogs are on Heels)
What is an advantage of slotted floors? Urine and feces can fall through the slots into a pit
What is a disadvantage of slotted floors? Hogs on Heels, they could hurt themselves
At what temperature should we be concerned for swine health? Over 90*F
How can we protect swine from the heat? Wallows, spray cooling/misting system, AC/swamp coolers, Avoid processing procedures during high temp/high humidity days
What is the goal of swine feeds? Max feed intake with minimal costs
What are some of the carbohydrates and fats used in swine feed? corn, wheat, oats, barley, tallow, vegetable oil
What are some of the sources of protein for swine feeds? soybean meal, cottonseed meal, fishmeal
What are the important macrominerals we're concerned with for swine? Ca, PO4, Na, Cl
What are the important microminerals we're concerned with for swine? Fe, Zn, Cu, I, Se
Corn and oil translates to what for our swine? fat and weight
Why do we need to supplement minerals for our swine? because they're not going out and eating from the ground anymore
What vitamins do we need to supplement for swine? A, D, E, K, and a B complex
What do the A and D vitamins do for our swine? They aid in cell membrane maintainence
What do the E and K vitamins do for our swine? Aid in Clotting and Healing
What does the B complex do for our swine? Immune resistence
What is something that we don't really see anymore due to a change in housing for swine? (because they don't go ourtside and root around anymore) Trichenosis
Where did swine used to get trichenosis? from eating snails and grubs
During gestation what type of diet do swine get? low protein (12%) or sow gets fat which means decreased milk production for the piglets and increased difficulty in farrowing
During lactation what type of diet do swine get? higher protein than gestation (14%), supplemental minerals Ca
What is the starter diet for piglets? High protein (20-24% at first then 18-20%) with milk products, fishmeal, oats, corn, and antibiotics to increase growth rate
What is the swine grower diet? protein 16% - usually contains soybean meal, meat/bone meal, synthetic AA (lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan)
What is the swine finisher diet? protein 14% - usually contains soybean meal, meat/bone meal, synthetic AA (lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan)
What is Kuru? The human equivalent of mad cow disease
When do swine reach puberty? At about 5-8 mos, but weight dependent 150-200 lbs
What type of reproductive cycle do swine have? Polyestrus
How long does the swine estrous cycle last? 21 days
How long does the swine estrus phase last? 2-3 days
when does ovulation occur in swine? Ovulation occurs 8-12 hrs before the end of standing heat
What is the average litter size for swine? 10-12 piglets
What are the 3 methods used for breeding swine? Pen, hand, AI
How long is gestation in swine? 3 mos, 3 wks, 3 days (114 days)
Why is it important for swine to farrow in a 5' x 7' crate? What is beneficial about this. So that the sow cant turn around and accidentally crush her piggies. She can stand up and lay down, but the piglets can run in and out to escape from her. Also we have heat lamps on the piglets side to keep them warm without overheating the mother.
True or False: Swine have the highest rate of any mammal. True, 30% mortality rate
Why are most births typically attended and assisted with swine? Because most deaths occur during the neonatal period and they have the highest rate of mortality among mammals
Describe how we assist with swine births? Remove the membranes, towel dry, umbilical care (tied off if necessary, 2% providone-iodine solution)
Piglets should suckle colostrum how soon after birth? within the first 30 minutes
When is teat order established? within the first few days
What does "Suckin' the hind teat" mean? Smaller pigs get the back teats where there is less milk and as a result are less likely to do as well.
What is involved in swine processing? Iron Dextran IM injection, clipping needle teeth, tail docking, Identification
Why is Iron Dextran given at processing for swine? to help prevent anemia, sow's milk is deficient in iron
Why are needle teeth cut of swine? They're deciduous teeth and don't hurt, but are very sharp, it keeps them from damaging their mom and each other
Why do we dock the tails of swine? because they will fight and bite each other's tails and canebalize them
With (swine) Ear Notching the right ear's notch indicates what? Litter number
With (swine) Ear Notching the left ear's notch indicates what? Individual number
What are 4 ways swine are indentified Ear Notching, Ear Tags, Tattoos on ear, paint branding
Which form or swine identification is temporary? paint branding
What was the name of the guy killing prostitutes and feeding them to his pigs? Robert Pickton
True or False: Hogs respect solid barriers, such as hurdles, & will move away from them. True
True or False: Canes are used to drive the hog forward by tapping rump, or side-to-side by tapping a shoulder. True
True or False: Canes and hurdles are never used together. False
What do pigs do when confronted with a barrier? Stop. They have small legs and can't jump.
What is a pig board or a hurdle? A board used to herd or drive swine
What are shaker canes? stick with like plastic can with beads in it to make a nose to make them turn the other direction
True or False: Swine require firm restraint because they will kick the crap out of you if you don't. False, the less restraint the better
Describe Piglet Restraint Catch a hind limb & suspend by the hind legs while supporting it's back against your legs. OR grab the hind leg, lift the body w/ other hand, once off the ground release the leg, place that hand over the shoulders to secure body. (hand on back and belly)
True or False: Pig snares can only be used on piglets. False they can only be used on adult pigs
Where is the pig snare placed on the pig? around the upper jaw
What is a pig snare used for. Restraint of the head for minor procedures such as injections and venipuncture
What is the difference between a snubbing rope and a pig snare? They are used for the same thing, but the snubbing rope is just a rope and the pig snare is a pole with a cable loop and more like a rabies pole
What are the two types of pig snares? Jorgenson pig holder, Iowa pig holder
Describe Casting Restraint on swine Restrain head w/ a snare or rope, make a rope harness, pass loop around the neck then make a loop and put the rope on the ground and they will step through, make a half hitch on the back, snug down over back for restraint
What side will the hog fall with the casting restraint? on the opposite side from the half-hitch
True or False: Smaller hogs can be cast by hand or by grasping the legs nearest you and pulling toward you. False, they can, but it's the legs furthest from you., make sure you're o soft ground so the head doesn't thunk
How can you cast a hog down by yourself? (LOL) put a snubbing rope as the casting rope, place the snubbing rope, take the free end & encircle it around the hind limb above the hock opposite side you want them to fall, gently pull. supposedly will become unbalanced and fall
What are some forms of restraint for adult swine? pig snares, snubbing, casting down, head gate, sling
What is the normal Temp range for swine? 101 -103.5 *F
What is the normal Pulse range for swine? 60-90 bpm
What is the normal Respiration Rate for swine? 10-24 bpm
Where can we take a pulse on swine? Auricular artery (along the pinna) & the coccygeal artery of the tail. For small hogs just place your hand against the chest wall behind the elbows
How do we assess RR in swine? Obserarvation of the chest or flank movement
What kind of restraint do we utilize for doing a PE with swine? Hurdle and corner. Snares can lead to squealing which makes it hard to auscult
What is the most common sample taken with swine? Blood
What is it important to remember about blood sampling with swine? RBCs are fragile so appropriate needles are important and never forcefully aspirate or inject blood.
How do we do urine collection on swine? Hahhaaha you don't usually. Miss Kelli says to let her know how that works out for you
What is the max sample size for the lateral auricular vein in swine? <5 ml
What are the restrictions for sampling from the lateral auricular vein in swine? 4-5 wks old or >25 lbs and NO vacutainer because the vein will collapse
What are the sites we can use for blood sampling on swine? lateral auricular vein, cranial vena cava, orbiatal sinus(medial canthus), jugular vein, cephalic vein, coccygeal vein
What side should sampling of the cranial vena cava on swine be done one? Right - ALWAYS
Where is the cranial vena cava located with swine? in the thoracic inlet between the first pair of ribs
Which site do we use for large sample collection of blood in swine? cranial vena cava
For sampling of the cranial vena cava in smaller hogs what should be done? They should be placed in dorsal recumbency; aim towards the opposite shoulder being careful not to hit the Phrenic or Vagus nerves
What age do swine need to be for blood samples to be drawn from the orbital sinus (medial canthus). They can be any age
How do we restrain small pigs for sampling from the orbital sinus (medial canthus)? dorsal recumbency with head down
How do we restrain large pigs for sampling from the orbital sinus (medial canthus)? standing w/ snare
What angle and how deep do we insert the needle for a blood sample from the orbital sinus (medial canthus) in swine? 45 degrees, toward opp. jaw til you hit bone then withdraw slightly and blood should flow into the hub. Aspirate gently.
How do we orally medicate a hog? snare hot and while mouth is open from squealing place speculum give meds via dose syringe, balling gun or stomach tube. Small piglets we press into the corner of the mouth with finger (piglets are placed standing up against handler's legs.
A dose syringe is used for what type of volumes in swine? small, <5 ml
How do you measure a stomach tube in swine? estimate length by measuring along piglet from mouth opening to the last rib, mark the tube with pen. Piglet is lifted and tube is passed over the back of the tongue
In swine how do we know the stomach isn't in the trachea If it is it won't pass over the mark.
In swine, how much medication can be given via stomach tube? 15 ml
Where can IV injections and catheterization be done on swine? lateral auricular vein, cephalic vein, jugular vein(small piglets)
True or False: Catheters can be placed int he lateral auricular artery and are difficult to maintain. False, it's the lateral auricular vein
How are catheters placed in swine when using the lateral auricular vein? toward the base of the ear, hub secured with super glue, roll of gause inside pinna, roll pinna over then encircle ear with tape
What is a secondary place a catheter can be placed in swine that is well tolerated? subcutaneous abdominal vein
What is the usual route for fluid therapy in swine? IP
How are piglets's restrained for IP injections? piglet held by hind legs, aseptic prep of area between ventral midline and flank fold - needle is inserted between these 2 landmarks; always stabilize the needle
How are larger hogs restrained for IP injections? restrained standing using aseptic technique the needle is inserted through paralumbar fossa
How are piglets held for IM injections? held in one are injected with the other
True or False: Sampling from the medial canthus has to be done in an anesthetized pig? True, some say you can do it in an awake hog with a snare, but miss kelli doesn't think she would
Where are IM injections given in swine and why? dorsal neck behind the ears, to avoid ruining any cuts of meat
What is the IM injection limit in piglets/hogs? 2 ml and 3 ml
Where are SQ injections given in small hogs? The axillary or inguinal region
What is the SQ injection limit in small hogs/larger hogs? 1-2 ml and 3 ml
Where are SQ injections given in larger hogs? skin behind the base of the ear
At 1 wk of age what do we vaccinate piglets for what? Transmissible Gastroenteritis, Atrophic rhinitis, Rotavirus(if a problem on the farm
At 4-5 wks of age we vaccinate piglets for what? Atrophic rhinitis(booster), Erysipelas, Actinobacillus(if a problem on the farm)
Before breeding sows and gilts get what vaccinations? Leptospirosis, Porcine Parvovirus, Pseudorabies(if needed)
Before farrowing sows and gilts get what vaccinations? Collibacillosis, Erysipelas, Transmissible Gastroenteritis, Rotavirus and C perfringens IF needed
Before breeding boars get what vaccinations? Leptospirosis, Erysipelas
What does PSS stand for? Porcine Stress Syndrome
Porcine Stress Syndrome is also known as what? Malignant Hyperthermia
What is Porcine Stress Syndrome? It is a hyper metabolic syndrome involving the skeletal muscle & is characterized by muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, dysrhythmias, and death
How high can swine temperature get with PSS? 113 degrees
When does PSS most commonly occur? with volatile anesthetics and in a stressful event
What happens with the meat in pigs with PSS? it becomes pale and watery
What do you do with pigs that get PSS? Euthanize them
What are the precursors for PSS? None they just spike a temp and die
What type of disease is Leptospirosis? Bacterial
How does Leptospirosis manifest in swine? Late term abortion. 2-4 weeks before term Piglets at term may be stillborn or die shortly after farrowing
How is Leptospirosis usually transmitted? Infection is usually from contact with the infected urine of other infected pigs or wildlife
is Leptospirosis zoonotic? Yes
What wildlife creature tends to be a big reservoir of infection for leptospirosis? Raccoons and Rats
What type of disease is Porcine Parvovirus? Viral
The most commonly identified cause of reproductive failure is what? Porcine Parvovirus
What does PPV stand for? Porcine Parvovirus
What is mummification? Fetuses that will die and mummify and prevent them from getting pregnant again
What is a "stone baby" a mummified fetus in the uterus
What percent of the midwestern US herds have a serological evidence of exposure to Porcine Parvovirus? >90%
What causes Pseudorabies? Herpesvirus
What is pseudorabies also known as? Aujesky's Disease, Mad itch
What is the only natural host for pseudorabies? swine
Who can be infected with pseudorabies? cattle, sheep goats, cats, dogs, and wildlife as well as swine
True or False: Young piglets are highly susceptible to pseudorabies. True, losses can be 100% in piglets <7 days old.
What symptoms can piglets show with pseudorabies? CNS signs with paddling and tremors sometimes headpressing
With pseudorabies what symptoms do weaned pigs show? Respiratory signs
With pseudorabies what symptoms do sows show? abortion, mummification, stillbirths
Is pseudorabies a reportable disease? yes
What does TGE stand for? Transmissible Gastroenteritis
What causes TGE? Coronavirus
What type of disease is TGE? Viral
What are the symptoms of TGE? vomiting, profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, and excessive thirst
What is the mortality rate in piglets with TGE? 100% <1 wk, but seldom fatal in hogs >1 month (maybe 50% in between the two)
What are the treatments for TGE? Supportive care - increase ambient temp and give electrolyte solutions, etc
How is TGE spread? Easily spread by people, animals, and fomites
Why is Aujesky's Disease called pseudorabies? Because sometimes with the respiratory symptoms they will foam at the mouth
Why is Aujesky's Disease called the mad itch? Because of the paddling
What type of disease is Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Viral
What are the two clinical phases of Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome? Reproductive Failure, Post Weaning Respiratory Disease
What is seen in the Reproductive Failure phase of Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome? stillborn, mummies, preterm farrowing.
What is seen in the Post Weaning Respiratory Disease phase of Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome? Thumping respiratory pattern; severe, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia
What does PRRS stand for? Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome
Vaccine is available for PRRS to which swine? Which is it not approved for? approved - piglets and non-pregnant sows; not approved for PRRS-free herds
What type of disease is Erysipelas? Bacterial
What bacteria causes Erysipelas? Eryspipelothrix rhusipathiae
Why can't you use the vaccinate for PRRS in a PRRS-free herd? because they will show up positive on a test for it's antibodies
What does Erypsipelas cause in finishing pigs? Acute septicemia and sudden death. The skin form causes chronic arthritis and vegetative endocarditis which may occur in sequence or separately
What are the symptoms of pigs acutely infected with Erypsipelas? Fever (104-108*F), walk stiffly on their toes, & lie on their sternums separate from others
What does it mean when a hog lies on it's sternum rather than it's side That they are either having trouble breathing or rising
What does the skin form of Erysipelas look like? Skin form varies from widespread erythema & purple discoloration of the ears, snout, and abdomen to diamond-shaped skin lesions laterally and dorsally. If untreated, the tips of the ears and tail will necrose and slough off
How do we treat Erysipelas? With Penicillin although chronic infection is not treatable so we cull them
What type of disease is Enteric Colibacillosis? bacterial
Why bacterium causes Enteric Colibacillosis? enterotoxigenic strains of E. Coli
Why is Enteric Colibacillosis a common infection with nursing and weanling pigs? because it is a fecal oral contamination and swine's nipples are dirty
What symptoms does Enteric Colibacillosis cause? Profuse watery diarrhea, rapid dehydration, acidosis, and death
True or False: E. Coli is always in our GI tract. True, but it can't go into our stomach or it causes bad bad things
How do we prevent Enteric Colibacillosis? reducing predisposing factors such as dampness and chilling; improving sanitation by replacing solid or slatted concrete floors w/ wire mesh flooring, and vaccinating gestating sows
What are characteristics of Atrophic Rhinitis in swine? Sneezing, atrophy of the nasal turbinates (which may cause distortion of the nasal septum & twisting of the UPPER jaw)
What are the 2 forms of Atrophic Rhinitis in swine? Regressive and Progressive
What causes Regressive Atrophic Rhinitis in swine? Bordetella bronchiseptica
What causes Progressive Atrophic Rhinitis in swine? Due to toxigenic Pasteurella Multocida
What does Pasteurell Multocida cause in bunnies? Snuffles
What does Bordetella bronchiseptica cause in dogs? Kennel cough
Which form of Atrophic Rhinitis is severe, permanent, and causes poor growth and twisting of the upper jaw in swine? Progressive
Why does Progressive Atrophic Rhinitis cause poor growth? because they can't eat very well?
What causes Atrophic Rhinitis? It's pretty much always in our environment all the time. Crowding, poor ventilation, mixing & moving and other concurrent diseases contribute to intensification of disease response.
What causes Actinobacillus? Bacteria - Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
What is Actinobacillus? Severe, contagious respiratory disease
Who is most susceptible to Actinobacillus? young pigs <6 months of age
What is the onset, duration, morbidity, mortality of Actinobacillus? Sudden onset, short course, high morbidity & mortality
What are the signs of Actinobacillus? Sudden death, severe respiratory distress, thumps, open-mouth breathing with blood frothy nasal and oral discharge
Why is Actinobacillus difficult to control? Because it has a rapid onset and a chronic carrier state.
How do we prevent Actinobacillus? Good husbandry practices like segregated early weaning, all-in/all-out management, reduced stocking rates, and improved ventilation
What causes Streptococcal infections? Bacterium streptococcus suis
What does a streptococcal infection cause? meningitis, arthritis, pneumonia, endocarditis, myocarditis, and diseases of the genital tract in sows
Which type of streptococcal infection is of minor importance? Type 1
Type 2 of streptococcal infections cause acute, often fatal meningitis in what type of pigs? weaners and growing pigs
True or False: once a streptococcal infection is in the herd it tends to remain endemic. True
How do we treat streptococcal infections in a herd. We don't, neither vaccination nor therapy will eliminate it. You basically have to start from scratch and try to eliminate it from your environment
What is a female llama or alpaca called? Female
What is a male llama or alpaca called? Male
What is a castrated male llama or alpaca called? Gelding
What is a baby llama or alpaca called from birth to weaning? Cria
What is a llama or alpaca between weaning and adulthood called? Juvenile
True or False: Llamas are one of the oldest domesticated animals? True
When and where were llamas domesticated? 4-5000 years ago in Peru in the Andean mountains
What are llamas primarily used for? Beasts of burden
Traditionally other than being beasts of burden what were llamas used for? meat, fiber for clothing, hides for shelter, and manure pellets for fuel
What are llamas used for today? breeding stock, packing, driving, fiber production, therapy, and pets
How long do Llamas typically live for? 15-25 years
How long do Alpacas typically live for? 15-20 years
What is the average height of llamas? 40-45" at the shoulders 5'5"-6' at the head
What is the average height of Alpaca? 30-40" at the shoulders
What is the average weight of llamas? 280-450 lbs
What is the average weight of Alpaca? 110-180 lbs
True or False: Llamas and alpacas are highly social animals that require companionship of it's own species. True
Why do Llamas spit? Used among llamas to ward off a perceived threat, discourage annoying suitors, to establish pecking order at mealtime, and also if they have developed a dislike for excessive handling by humans
What are Vicuna & Guanacos? The wild version of llamas and alpacas
What is Berserk Male Syndrome? where young male crias see humans as other male llamas and can be quite aggressive.
How do we prevent Berserk Male Syndrome? Not bottle feeding male crias (primarily seen in them) and castrating them young
How low of a temperature can llamas be in? -4 degrees F if good wind shelter is provided
What are we concerned about with llamas and their coat and temperatures? They have moderate to heavy fiber coat and when subjected to high heat/humidity can suffer heat stress
How do we know if a llama is feeling threatened or angry and may spit? ears back, gulping
What do we need to remember with shearing and llamas? And why? to leave 2 cm to prevent sunburn
When do we sheer Llamas? spring/summer
True or False: Llamas can be housed with other species. True, they can be housed with goats and sheep. they will even bond and act as a guard animal with sheep.
What is true with Lllamas and defication? They use a communal dung pile - all deficate/urinate in the same pile.
Will Alpacas or Llamas destroy fences? Not typically, can be confined with a 4-5' fence
How long do Llamas and Alpacas typically spend grazing? about 1/3 of daylight hours
What type of hay should llamas and alpacas be allowed? grass, timothy
Why should legume hays be avoided? It will cause obesity
How are baby crias restrained? one arm around the chest and the other around the rump
How are adults restrained? halter trained and restrained with a rope
How many compartments is the llama or alpaca stomach? 3
What are the 3 compartments to the llama or alpaca stomach? C1, C2, C3
When you spin down llama or alpaca blood what color will the serum be and why? yellow, because they don't have a gallbladder
Which compartment is comparable to the rumen? C1
Which compartment are they missing? Reticulum
Which compartment is comparable to the omassum? C2
Which compartment is comparable to the abomasum? C3
Which compartment is the 'true stomach' in Llamas? C3
What is the average temp for cria? 102 degrees F
What is the average temp for adult llamas? 99-101 degrees F
What is the average respiratory rate for llamas and alpacas? 10-30 bpm
What type of erythrocytes do llamas and alpacas have? Elliptical shaped, lacking central pallor
Where is venipuncture done on llamas and alpacas? near the jaw (top 1/3 of their neck), where the jugular separates from the carotid (carotid dives in)
What do we have to do for IV catheterization? cutdown
How long is gestation in the llama and alpacas? 342 days +/- 10 days (almost a year)
>70% of births occur when? mid-morning to late afternoon
When do females reach puberty? ~6-8 months
When dow we breed llamas and alpacas? why? Alpacas - 12 mos & 40 kgs, Llamas 18 mos & 80 kgs. Because they're still very small at 6-8 mos and there is a high risk of dystocia with early mating
What type of estrous cycle do llamas and alpacas have? They are induced ovulators
How do we know when llamas and alpacas are in heat? When a female is receptive she assumes a position of sternal recumbency and allows male to mount
What is it called when a female is in sternal recumbency for mating? cush
How many babies are typically born with llamas and alpacas? 1
How do llamas and alpacas typically give birth? standing
How soon should crias be on their feet and nursing? within 2 hrs of birth
What is it important to note about females reproductive cycle after giving birth? they only need 15 day rest period before next pregnancy
What is choanal atresia? a congenital defect, failure of the caudal nares to open during embryonic development
What are the signs of choanal atresia? they will gulp for air between attempting to nurse
Is Choanal atresia treatable? Sometimes. Sometimes it's a tiny membrane, sometimes it involves bone and tissue in which case they may be intensively raised or culled
What is wry face? slight to severe lateral deviation of the MAXILLA
What percentage of white animals with blue eyes may be deaf with llamas and alpacas? 80%
What 3 eye and ear defects are alpacas and llamas prone to? Juvenile cataracts, deafness, fused and short ears
What ventricular septal defect occurs in llamas and alpacas and what does it cause? valve at birth that doesn't close - causes fatigue & fainting. Will have a murmur
What urogenital defects are llamas and alpacas prone to? Hypoplastic ovaries, double cervices, hypoplastic testes, etc
What symptoms are seen with clostridium perfringens type A? Rapid onset of neurological signs, followed by death in crias <4 wks old.
Is a vaccine available for Clostridium perfringens Type A? No
What symptoms does Bovine Viral Diarrhea cause in Llamas and Alpacas? mild diarrhea or respiratory disease if anything at all
What symptoms are seen with megaesophagus and llamas or alpacas? chronic weightloss, post-eating regurgiation, or "frothing" of food
True or False: Diarrhea is common in llamas and alpacas. False, it is uncommon
What is usually the cause of diarrhea in llamas and alpacas? coccidia and sometimes coronavirus
What is the only neoplasia found with any significance frequency in llamas and alpacas? lymphosarcoma
When do we typically see coronavirus in llamas and alpacas? after a show, sale or animals being moved for reproductive duty
What are crias susceptible to with cornavirus? dehydration and secondary complications
Why are radiographs necessary to diagnose pneumonia or other respiratory issues with llamas and alpacas? because their lungs are super deep and they are compact so the rumen sounds which are more rapid than in cows overlap the sounds making auscultation difficult and un-rewarding
What causes stomach atony? due to microorganisms dying off in the rumen
What are the signs of stomach atony? Partial/complete lack of consumption, loss of body condition, & depression
How do we treat stomach atony? transfer of camelid stomach contents or strained rumen fluid. Results in rapid rumen return to eat
Where are ulcers common for llamas and alpacas? C3 and proximal duodenum
What is the primary cause of ulcers in llamas and alpacas? stress
What are the signs of ulcers in llamas and alpacas? present acutely recumbent, obtunded, and anorexic when llama was fine 1-2 days ago.
How do we treat ulcers in llamas and alpacas They are typically "silent" and then they perforate and are usually untreatable
What are the symptoms of a pamcreatitis in llamas and alpacas? decreased food consumption, depression and non-specific illness. ADR. Clincially - increased amylase and lipase
Where do llamas get Hepatic Disease? often fasciola hepatica, particularly sensitive to the liver fluke
What are the symptoms of fasciola hepatica? ill thrift, diminished growth, and acute death
Created by: Adeprey4311



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