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When do the Australopithecines date back to? 4.2-1.98 mya
Why is the Pliocene epoch significant? Rapid increase in unambiguously bipedal hominins in East and Southern Africa.
Ardipithecus Ramidus- how old? 4.4 mya
How tall was "Ardi" and how much did she weigh? 4 ft tall, 120 pounds
What makes Ardi more human like than her sister species Ar. Kdabba? Her canine teeth
What is the paleo environment of the Middle Awash Region? Densely forested
Although Ardi had a rigid foot suited for upright walking, what did she have that still resembled an ape like quality? Opposable big toe
How many years does the Pliocene Epoch date back to? 5.5 mya
What about Ardi's pelvis indicated she was a biped? Bowl-shaped
How many species does the genus Australopithecus include? 5 species
Name the East African species of Australopithecus Au. anamensis (4.2-3.9 mya) Au. afarensis (3.6- 3.0 mya) Au. garhi (2.5 mya)
Name the Southern African species of Australopithecus Au. africanus (3.0-2.2 mya) Au.sediba (1.98 mya)
Name the three species of Paranthropines P. aethiopicus (2.5 mya) P. boisei (2.2-1.3 mya) P. robustus (1.8 mya- 1 mya)
Name the one known species of Keyanthropus Kenyanthropus platyops
What is known about Kenyanthropus platyops? It was undoubtedly bipedal
Name the two species concept models Ecological species concept and Biological species concept
What is the biological species concept? A species is any group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, and is reproductively isolated from other groups.
What is the ecological species concept? A species is any group of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources (niche). In this concept, both form and behaviour help define the species.
What concept does a lumper subscribe to (ecological/biological)? Biological Species Concept
What concept does a splitter subscribe to (ecological/biological)? Ecological Species Concept
Big molars with thick enamel are characteristic of what genus? Paranthropus
What type of diet do the big molars of the Paranthropines suggest? A diet full of tough, fibrous vegetation, roots, tubers and nuts
Why is Kenyanthropus platyops hard to classify? It combines traits of Paranthropines and Australopithecines
Where does the East African rift system run? Runs from the Afar depression in NE Ethiopia, south to Malawi
What does the East African rift system look like? Rift valleys, inactive and active volcanoes
How is a rift valley created? Magma forces tectonic plates apart, creating a collapsed area between the edges of the plates
What is the earliest known member of the genus Australopithecus? Australopithecus anamensis
What species is "Lucy" a part of? Afarensis
Australopithecine qualities Generally absent sagittal crest, weak supraorbital tori, small molars,
Paranthropus qualities Present sagittal crest, strong supraorbital tori, thick molars
What epoch did hominins originate in? Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene
Why is Dmanisi (Georgia) important? site of the earliest Hominin fossils outside of Africa
Where was Homo naledi discovered? Bright Star Cave, South Africa
Homo naledi is a mix of what genus'? Australopithecus and Homo
Which species are associated with Oldowan tools? H habilis, H rudolfensis, H ergaster
What evidence do we have that Oldowan tool makers/users were scavenging for meat? Animal bones found at hominin sites have been broken for marrow extraction. If more fat and protein was available, this would not have been necessary.
Why does animal fat and protein become increasingly more important as the genus Homo progresses? Larger brain size requires more energy that comes from animal fat and protein