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Beef Immunology

VME4103

QuestionAnswer
Immunity (Allergens, Natural, Specific) Allergens- refers to actions by an animals body to foreign substances such as microbes and various macromolecules; Natural- Innate; Specific- Aquired
Innate Immunity is Nonspecific meaning you are born with it. This is the physical or chemical barriers like skin, saliva, stomach acids, enzymes, body temp your body has when you are born.
Innate Immunity (Humoral) is a complacement system that lyses microorganisms or enhances phagocytosis. The chemical part of the system
Lysozyme is an enzyme that.. destructive to cell walls of bacteria, present in tears and other body fluids
Interferon are produced by .. because of... and come in - different forms. T cells in response to viral infections and 5 major classes
Innate immunity is also inflammatory barriers which are characterized by.. leakage of vascalar fluid, with serum proteins and antibacterial activity, and cellular levels like WBCs
Acquired Immunity can come in two forms by --- or ---- natural exposure or vaccination
Cytokines are proteins that mediate cellular interactions and regulate cell growth and secretions. As a result they regulate many aspects of the immune system keeping cyte of things. (Ctyokines kindof close the site of thins)
Cell Mediated Immunity- T Lymphocytes protects individual against microorganisms, tumor cells and viruses, are long lived and have three different types. Originate in bone marrow and mature in the thymus.
A small precentage of ------ B cells transform into ------ which are pre-programmed to respond rapidly to a second exposure to the antigen. activated B-cells are transformed into B memory cells
Role of Immune Response is to (2 jobs) prevent pathogens of disease causing organisms from entering the tissues of the body. Its second responsibility is to eliminate those pathogens that are successful in entering tissues.
Humoral Immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies such as B-Lymphocytes associated with Antibody production; Provides defense against extracellular microbial infections
Def- Antibiotics synthetic molecules that interfere with metabolism and growth of bacteria. Have nothing to do with the immune system, but a functional immune system is required to get a favorable antibiotic response
Vaccination is an attempt to ... present an antigen to the calf
Immunization is the process of initiating a... successful or functionally protective immune response
Pathogen is a .. disease causing organism like virus, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma
But a vaccination does not mean ... immunity; a vaccine can only place the antigens in the calf, doesn't always keep from getting sick.
There are three components to an effective immune response: 1. An effective vaccine; 2. Animal must have a functional immune system; 3. The person administering the vaccination
An effective vaccine must be kept safe. The things will ruin a vaccine: UV light, hot or cold temps, freezing, dash boards of pickups, disinfectants used in cleaning syringes, improper storage. Of course expired vaccines and the right antigens.
An animal must have a functional immune system, things like .... will depress the immune response. stressors such as transportation, weaning, surgeries, commingling
The person handling the vaccine needs to know what they are doing. For instance: .... can ruin a vaccine. Handling, and vaccine temp must maintained. No excessive shaking. The proper does and route of administration with the proper equipment must be done.
The two responses to a vaccine are: Primary response and secondary response
The primary response to a vaccine is characterized by: slow in onset, low in magnitude, short lived and IgM.
The secondary response to a vaccine is: rapid in onset, high in magnitude, long lived, and IgG, IgA, or IgE.
Immune responses from calves are possible but they are immunonaive (..) but can mount a defense with... immunonaive-have not been exposed to antigens; The need assistance from the cow in the form of colostrum
In calves the # of circulating - ------- is approximately --% of that found in an adult. They reach adult levels is approx -- days post partum circulating B lymphocytes is approximately 30% of that found in an adult, and reach adult levels at 20 days post partum.
Very important thing after a calf is born is to ... tag a calf to a cow with ID numbers
Need the ingestion of colostrum within the first - hours after birth.. 6 hours, colostral immunity, passive transfer can be improved with the use of maternal vaccination program. Provides calf with active protection for a few months. Absorption time is essential with the first 24 hours and efficiency decreases over this time
Colostral absorption by calves is .... active immunity that is passively acquired.
Absorption of maternal cells is a ------ mechanism: cells can cross the neonate intestinal barrier. selective mechanism.
Absorption of immunoglobulins is ----- and can be ------. limited and can be saturated.
Failure of passive transfer can come from (3) poor colostrum, stress by calf and lack of availability.
Failure of passive transfer can come from poor colostrum can stem from: poor cow nutrition, weaning issues with prior calves, some cows will nurse on each other and drink the colostrum of other calves.
Failure of passive transfer can also stem from stress by calf where the .. gut is closed down and unable to absorb Ig
Failure of passive transfer can come from lack of availability, the calf just can't get at it: swollen tongue, teats on cow, calf is weak from prolonged delivery, lousy mother
Bovine neonatala considerations with records: birth date, weight, gender, BCS for the cow, calving problems.
Neonate Immunology and Vaccinations Rule have to wait until the maternal Ab has waned and the immune system is mature enough to respond. Old school thoughts were that immunoglobulins acquired via colostrum interfered with the immune response.
Immunization of calves is practically done starting at 2-4 months of age to develop adequate protection against specific antigens.
Created by: kccroy