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DU PA Epilepsy

Duke PA Epilepsy

seizures result from abnormal __ brain electrical activity
seizures are a common sign of __ brain disfunction
not all seizures imply __ epilepsy
seizures can result from a reaction of the brain to physiologic stress such as __ sleep deprivation, fever, and withdrawal from alcohol or sedative drugs
in developed countries __% of all persons have recurrent seizures at some time during their lives 2-4
the incidence of seizure is highest among __ children, older adults, men, those in the inner city and in developing nations
a seizure that involves the cerebral cortex diffusely from the beginning generalized seizure
a seizure with onset limited to part of the cerebral hemisphere focal seizure
the two types of seizure generalized, focal (partial)
rhythmic jerking movements clonic
stiffening tonic
simple partial seizures with motor signs begin with __ movements of a discrete body part tonic or clonic
because of their large cortical representation, muscles of the __ are often involved in simple partial seizures face and hand
__ may be followed by a transient neurologic abnormality reflecting postictal depression of the epileptogenic cortical area simple partial seizures
the reversible neurologic deficits following a simple partial seizure are referred to as __ and rarely last for more than 48 hours Todd's paralysis
__ impair consciousness and produce unresponsiveness complex partial seizures
70-80% of complex partial seizures arise from the __ temporal lobe
many times simple focal seizures will progress to __ complex partial seizures
complex partial seizures preceded by an olfactory aura are referred to as __ uncinate fits
__ involve both cerebral hemispheres simultaneously from the outset generalized seizures
__ are characterized by abrupt loss of consciouseness with bilateral tonic extension of the trunk and limbs, often accompanied by a loud vocalization, followed by bilaterally synchronous muscle jerking generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal convulsions)
following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, a __ phase is marked by transient deep stupor, followed in 15-30 minutes by a lethargic, confused state with automatic behavior postictal
__ occur mainly in children and are characterized by sudden, momentary lapses in awareness, staring, rhythmic blinking, and , often, a few small clonic jerks of the arms or hands absence seizure (petit mal seizure)
most abscence seizures last less than __ seconds 10
most generalized tonic-clonic seizures last less than __ seconds 90
__ exhibit as rapid, recurrent, brief muscle jerks that can occur bilaterally, synchronously or asynchronously, or unilaterally without loss of consciousness myoclonic seizures
myoclonic seizures tend to cluster shortly after __ walking or while falling asleep
__ occur most often in children with diffuse encephalopathies and a re characterized by sudden loss of muscle tone that may result in falls with self injury. atonic seizures (drop attacks)
__ are attacks precipitated by a specific stimulus such as touch, a musical tone, a particular movement, reading, stroboscopic light patterns, or complex visual images reflex seizures
__ is the most common cause of convulsion in children fever
most febrile seizures occur between the ages of 6 months and __ years 4
most childre affected with __ have no long-term consequences, although they are more at risk of developing epilepsy later in life febrile seizures
__ is the most common epileptic syndrome of adults temporal lobe epilepsy
virtually all patients with __ have complex partial seizures, some of which secondarily generalize temporal lobe epilepsy
post traumatic epilepsy usually occurs within __ years of injury, although new-onset seizures may occur later 1-2
__ do not increase the risk of seizure mild head injuries (no loss of consciousness, no skull fracture, absence of focal neurological signs, and not contusion ro hematoma)
__ is the most important diagnostic test for epilepsy EEG
__ rarely offer diagnostic assistance in otherwise healthy patients with epilepsy routine blood tests
__ should be ontained in all patients over the age of 18 who are suspected of having epilepsy MRI
__ refers to the symptom complex that results when a transient, global reduction in cerebral perfusion occurs. Often mislabled as seizure. syncope
the location of the original group of synchronously firing neurons focus
definition of seizure paroxysmal, excessive, synchronous discharge of a group of neurons
definition of epilepsy documented history of two or more seizures that are not temporally related to an obvious metabolic or febrile cause
electrical discharge begins in a small region partial seizure
focal seizure with no alteration of consciousness simple partial seizure
focal seizure with altered consciousness complex partial seizure
electrical discharge simultaneously at all EEG electrodes on the scalp generalized seizure
partial seizures represent __ focal brain disease
parial seizures may __ and are often confused with generalized seizures secondarily generalize
Brief (5-10 seconds), recurrent episodes of staring sometimes associated with minor motor automatisms. Patients have no memory of the spells, but are normal immediately at completion absence (petit mal)
EEG pattern for absence seizures, 3 second spike and wave, can be be induced by __ hyperventilation
brief, lightning-like jerking movements of the extremities or trunk associated with a paroxysmal EEG abnormality. myoclonic seizures
nocturnal __ is not epileptic in nature myoclonus
almost exclusively in childhood. Begin with impaired consciousness, followed by asymmetric bilateral jerking. clonic seizures
sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause a standing pt to fall. This may be as mild as nodding of the head or sagging at the knees, or as severe as total loss of body tone. Last 1 to 4 seconds and there is no detectable loss of consciousness. atonic seizures
the most common seizure type complex partial seizures
people with __ bite the tips of their tongues pseudoseizures (psychogenic seizures)
common causes of provoked seizures sleep deprivation, excessive use of stimulants, withdrawal from sedatives or alcohol, substance abuse, high fever (childhood), hypoxia, hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbance
first test to do just after a patient has a seizure blood glucose
conditions that can be mistaken for a seizure syncope, non-epileptic spells of psychogenic origin (pseudoseizures), breath holding spells, REM sleep behavior, panic attack
prolonged or recurrent seizures without regaining consciousness status epilepticus
continuous simple seizures are also known as __ epilepsia partialis continua
predictors of future epilepsy in the scenario of febrile seizures multiple seizures during one illness, focal seizures, abnormal neurologic exam or delayed development
best treatment for febrile seizures is __ prevention with antipyretics
alcohol withdrawal seizures usually occur __ hours after the last intake of alcohol 6-48
long term treatment of alcohol withdrawal seizures cessation of alcohol intake
who to treat after a single seizure patients with a structural lesion, or recognized abnormal EEG pattern
who not to treat (probably) after a single seizure Patients without structural or EEG abnormality; Alcohol withdrawal, Drug abuse; Provoked seizure; Single seizure after head injury without structural abnormality
risk of recurrence after a single unprovoked seizure is about __% in 5 years 30
Created by: bwyche