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Diagnostic Imaging 3

Quiz Review #3

QuestionAnswer
Define Ventral V: Lower or toward the lower aspect of the body, from the latin venter meaning "belly"
Define Dorsal D: Toward the back; describes the upper aspects of the head, neck, trunk, and tail. In limbs, dorsal refers to those areas of the legs distally from the carpus and tarsus joints that face cranially or towards the head (from Latin dors/o "back")
Define Caudal Cd: toward the tip of the tail. Also refers to the parts of the limb above (proximal to) the carpal and tarsal joints of the face toward the tail (from the Latin cauda, "tail")
Define Rostral Ro: Toward the tip of the nose (from latin rostrum meaning "beak")
Define Proximal Pr: Nearer to the middle or the point of origin of a structure (from Latin proxim/o meaning "next")
Define Distal Di: Situated farthest from the center, median line, or point of attachment or origin. In dental radiography, the direction toward the last tooth in each quadrant; farthest from the median line (from Latin dist/o; "far")
Define Anterior A: situated at or directed toward the front
Define Posterior P: directed toward or situated at the back
Define Palmar Pa: The caudal surface of the forelimb from and including the carpal joint distally (from Latin palmar, "hollow of hand")
Define Plantar Pl: The caudal surface of the hind limb from the tarsal joint distally (from Latin plantar meaning, "sole of foot")
Define Cranial Cr: The parts of the neck, trunk, and tail positioned toward the head from any given point. In limbs, cranial refers to the parts above (proximal to) the carpal and tarsal joints that face toward the head (from Latin cranio, "head")
What does VD refer to? Ventral-Dorsal
What are the limits for a Thoracic view? Cranial: Thoracic inlet, Caudal: Diaphragm, Dorsal: Thoracic spine, Ventral: Sternum
What are the landmarks for a Thoracic view? Manubrium, Xyphoid process, Dorsal spinous process, Sternum
What are the limits for an Abdominal view? Cranial: Diaphragm, Caudal: Pelvic inlet, Dorsal: Lumbar spine, Ventral: Abdominal (belly) wall
What are the landmarks for an Abdominal view? three ribs cranial to xyphoid process, Greater trochanter of the femur, Dorsal spinous process, Belly wall
What are the limits for a Pelvic view? Cranial: Pelvic inlet, Caudal Ischium, Dorsal: None, Ventral: None
What are the landmarks for a Pelvic view? Wings of the ileum, Ischiatic tuberosity
What are the limits for a Cervical Spinal view? Cranial: C1, Caudal: C7, Dorsal: None, Ventral: None
What are the landmarks for a Cervical Spinal view? Wings of the atlas, Dorsal tips of the scapula, none, none
What are the limits for a Thoracic Spinal view? Cranial: T1, Caudal T13, Dorsal: None, Ventral: None
What are the landmarks for a Thoracic Spinal view? Dorsal tips of the scapula, last rib, none, none
What are the limits for a Lumbar Spinal view? Cranial: T11, Caudal L2, Dorsal: None, Ventral: None
What are the landmarks for a Lumbar Spinal view? 9th rib, Iliac crest
what is the most common non-GI study? cystography
what does the developer do? converts the sensitive halide crystals into black metallic silver
what does the fixer do? removes the unchanged silver hallide crystals while hardening the emulsion
what maintenance can we do on the automatic processor have professionally serviced every 3 months, wipe feed tray and rollers every day with a soft sponge
amber filter is sensitive to what color light? blue
dark red filter is sensitive to what color light? blocks both green and blue light
what is the optimal temperature for manual processing solutions? 68 F, achieved at room temp of 95 F
What does DMO refer to? dorsal-medial-oblique, dorsal aspect of the medial part of a limb, at an angle
What is a positive-contrast media? radio-opaque, high density, white on radiograph, Barium sulphate and water-soluble organic iodides
What is a negative-contrast media? radio-luscent, low density, black on radiograph, non-ionic iodides, or gases
what is the double-contrast procedure? administer negative contrast medai first, then rotate animal to fully coat organs, then positive media. this prevents air bubbles from forming
Define Recumbancy: Lying down. Most radiographs of the dog and cat are made in this position. In small animals, it is the assumed position unless otherwise noted.
Define Extension: An unbending movement around a joint in a limb (such as with the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
Define Flexion: A bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint4
Define Hyperextension: Extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit
Define Left: The patient’s left; (L, Le) In a LeL this would be the patient’s side that is down against the table.
Define Right: The patient’s right; (R) In a RtL this would be the patient’s side that is down against the table.
Define Medial: Towards the midline; (M)
Define Lateral: Away from the midline; (L/Lat)
Define Distal: Situated farthest from the center, median line, or point of attachment or origin. In dental radiography, the direction toward the last tooth in each quadrant; farthest from the median line (from Latin dist/o; "far"); (Di)
Define Oblique: Not parallel (O) In radiography this is added to the name of projections in which the central ray passes “obliquely” (not parallel) to one of the three major directional axes.
Vertebral formula for Carnivores: : C7, T13, L7, S3, Cy 5-25(depending on species, breed, and individual Cats are 5-23 and Dogs are 20-25 typically)
Vertebral Formula for Pig: C7, T14, L6, S4, Cy20
Vertebral Formula for Horses: C7, T18, L6, S5, Cy15-20
Vertebral Formula for Sheep: C7, T13, L6, S4, Cy17
Define V/D: Ventral-Dorsal The beam enters the ventral (abdominal) surface and exits the dorsal (back) surface.
Define D/V: Dorsal-Ventral The beam enters the dorsal surface and exits the ventral surface. This is the standard position for small animal thoracic cavity images with the patient in the sternal recumbency (back upwards, abdomen on table).
Define Rostrocaudal: Animal is in dorsal recumbancy, beam enters the rostral aspect (nose) of the skull and exits the caudal aspect (back of the skull) (RCd)
Define DP: Dorsal-Posterior While in sternal recumbency, the x-rays pass through the limb from the Dorsal aspect to the Posterior
Define AP: Anterior-Posterior
Define LM: Mediolateral view - The beam enters the lateral side and leaves the medial side.Small animal extremities are usually exposed as mediolateral projections.
Define DMO: DorsoMedial (Pl or Pa) Oblique
Define Arthography: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that evaluate articular surfaces and joint capsules
Define Celiography: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that evaluate the abdominal cavity and diaphram
Define Cystography: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that evaluates the bladder
Define Contrast media: A substance that can be instilled into the body by injection or ingestion to create higher subject contrast.
Define Double contrast: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that utilizes both negative(radiolucent) and positive(radiopaque) contrast media.
Define Esophography: Radiographic examination of the esophageal function and morphology following the administration of contrast medium.
Define Excretory urography: Radiographic examination of the kidneys and ureters following an injection of an intravenous positive contrast medium. Previously known as an Intravenous pyelogram or IVP.
Define Fistulography: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that evaluates the extent of fistulous tracts
Define Gastrography: Radiographic examination of the size, shape, position, and morphology of the stomach following administration of a contrast medium.
Define Myelography: Radiographic examination of the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord following the administration of a contrast medium.
Define Negative Contrast: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that utilizes positive contrast media which is radiolucent such as nonionic iodides, air, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
Define Positive Contrast: Diagnostic imaging contrast study that utilizes positive contrast media which is radiopaque (two common are barium sulfate and water-soluble organic iodides) Not used when perforation is suspected
Define Radiopaque: A substance such as barium that contains elements of high atomic number that will absorb more x-rays than tissue or bone so it appears white on a radiograph.
Define Radiolucent: A substance that allows x-rays to penetrate with less absorption than soft tissues and will thus appear black on a radiograph. Air, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide are such agents.
Define Sialography: A radiographic contrast study evaluating the salivary glands and ducts.
What is an OFA radiograph? for detection and assessment of hip joint irregularities and secondary arthritic hip joint changes.
What is included on an OFA radiograph? The radiograph film must be permanently identified with the animal's registration number or name, date the radiograph was taken, and the veterinarian's name or hospital name.
What does OFA stand for? Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
When might an oblique be used?
Created by: Adeprey4311