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Microbiology

Microbiology - VTT 234

QuestionAnswer
What antibiotics are effective against both gram positive and gram negative? Broad spectrum
What antibiotics are only effective against gram positive or gram negative, but not both? Narrow spectrum
How can elevation of colony morphology be described? Flat, raised, convex, drop like
Antibiotic dispensers usually have __ antibiotic cartridges in them. 8
What temperature do you intubate bacteria? 37° C
___________ kills bacteria. Bacteriocidal
___________ inhibits replication of bacteria. Bacteriostatic
What 3 factors can cause antibiotic failure? Microbiological reasons, host failure, drug failure
What are some microbiological reasons for drug failure? Established infection, abscess Tx with poor drainage, acquired drug resistance, wrong bacterial identification, mixed infection
What are some reasons for drug failure? Wrong Rx, incorrect route of administration, incorrect dosage, stopping Tx too early
What are some reasons for host failure? Immunosupression, elimination of competing normal flora
________ drug resistance occurs over time with repeated exposure. Acquired
The minimum dose of antibiotic needed to kill a type of bacteria is called what? Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
________ ________ applies to the turbidity of a saline and bacteria mixture. McFarland Standard
What is the clear area around an antibiotic disk called? Zone of Inhibition
Results of sensitivity testing can be...? Sensitive, resistant, intermediate
What bacteria is the flesh eating bacteria and strep throat? S. pyogenes
Where can Clostridium tentani be found? Soil
What bacteria causes rocky mountain spotted fever? Rickettsia rickettsii
What bacteria is acquired via cat bites or scratches? Bartonella hensale
What bacteria requires oxygen? Aerobic
Microorganisms found everywhere are considered _________. Ubiquitous
Normal flora is found in and on animals and benefit them by doing what? Disease resistance, synthesize vitamin K, metabolize drugs, excrete bilirubin
A ________ is a microorganism capable of causing disease. Pathogen
Some pathogens are __________, part of normal flora that doesn't normally cause disease until in the wrong place. Opportunistic
The period of time from the initial infection to when clinical signs occur is called an ________ period. Incubation
An organism is called _________ when it is found in a certain geographical region. Endemic
An organism is __________ when there is a sudden increase in the organisms in a certain area. Epidemic
A _________ is an epidemic that spreads through populations over a vast region. Pandemic
What are the structures that make up a microorganism? Cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear body
What does the cell wall do? Give rigidity, protection, shape
The ______ ______ is where genetic material is concentrated. Nuclear body
Some bacteria have a _________ that makes it slimy, so WBCs have a hard time destroying it. Capsule
______ are hair-like structures that help attach to mucous membranes. Pilli
A stage where bacteria forms a hard shell and becomes inactive causes the bacteria to be an _______, which is extremely hard to kill. Endospore
________ is needed to create an endospore shell. Calcium
What is the ability of a pathogen to produce an infectious disease? Pathogenicity
What are some types of endospires? Clostridium tetani (anaerobic), bacillus anthracis (aerobic)
_________ is the measure of degree of pathogenesis. Virulence
What two ways will bacteria produce disease? Tissue invasion, toxin production
What are some ways bacteria invades tissue? Capsule, pili, multiply within WBCs, kill WBCs, produce destructive enzymes
What are 3 methods of sample collections? Aspiration, swabbing, scraping
______ ______ can complicate collection, processing and and analysis, so aseptic technique is important. Normal flora
Swabs or ________ must be sterile and are good for 24 to 48 hours. Culturettes
To collect samples from blood, collect __ samples over ___ hours. 3 samples, over 6 hours
_____________ media inhibits growth of a particular organism, but allows another to grow. Differential-selective
________ media enhances growth and distinguishing characteristics of particular organisms. Enriched
_____________ media enhances growth of particular organisms and inhibits others. Selective enrichment
_______ _______ media allows growth of most organisms without enhancing or inhibiting. General purpose
_______ ______ is an enrichment and differential media that supports growth of most bacteria pathogens. Blood agar
A type of hemolysis that is green, slimy and clear is ______. Alpha
______ hemolysis is a zone surrounded by hemolysis around a bacteria colony. Beta
______ produces no hemolysis. Gamma
______ _____ agar is general purpose media used for sensitivity testing. Mueller Hinton
Label the agar lid with what? Date, ID, type of specimin
"Round" Coccus
"Rods" Bacillus
"Coiled" Spirochete
"Pairs" Diplo
"Chain" Strepto
"Clusters" Staphylo
Gram _______ have a thicker cell wall. Positive
What are the 4 steps to gram staining? Crystal violet (purple), iodine (seal in purple), alcohol (decolorizer) rinse, safranin
Gram negative stains _______ instead of dark purple, like gram positive. Pink/Red
A _______ test on gram positive bacteria causes bubbles if positive. Catalase
A ______ _____ test is done to look for mucous strands produced, if gram negative. Potassium hydroxide
Negative potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests mean _________ bacteria. Positive
Created by: PimaVT