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Intro, Tissue and Integument - VTT 236

What are the 4 primary types of tissue? Epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue
What is histology? The study of the microscopic structures of tissues and organs.
What are the 7 functions performed by epithelial cells? Protects, covers, lines, filters biochemical substances, absorbs nutrients, provides sensory input, manufactures secretions and excretions
What are the 3 basic shapes of epithelial cells? Squamous, cuboidal, cloumnar
What is a gland? An organ that secretes particular substances for use in the body or discharge into the surroundings.
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? Endocrine glands do not have ducts, exocrine glands (except goblet cells) have ducts.
Give examples of Endocrine glands. Pituitary gland, adrenal gland
Give examples of Exocrine glands. Salivary glands, sweat glands, liver, pancreas
What does the integument consist of? Skin, hair, nails, paw pads
What tissue types does integument consist of? All 4 (epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous)
What are the functions of the skin? Protection, temp. regulation, vitamin D synthesis, sensory, excretion, immunity
The epidermis has __ layers. 5
The 5 layers in the epidermis are what? (deepest to superficial) Stratum basal, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
Cells of the epidermis die as they become superficial, because they are further from the __________ source. Nutrition
What cells make up the epidermis? Keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhahns, merkel
What cell of the epidermis is most abundant? Keratinocytes
What happens to cells as they move to the outer layer? Lose nucleus, sharp edges, harden
Melanocytes give ________ (color). Pigment
A _______ cell is found at the epidermal-dermal junction. Merkel
The _________ cells are a macrophage specific to the dermis. Langerhans
A macrophage is a WBC that leaves the blood stream and enters what? Tissue
The papilla are _______ in the dermis, that rise up and lock things together. projections
Why do animals have a large hypodermal layer? Protection; allows skin to be pulled away without damage to tissue beneath
The ________ ________ is a touch receptor sensitive to heavy pressure and is deeper than the Meissners corpuscle. Pacinian corpuscle
The rough tissue that makes up the nose is the ______ ________ and it is usually pigmented. Planum nasale
The nose only has __ layers of epidermal tissue. 3 (normally there are 5 layers of epidermis)
Where is the toughest and thickest skin on a dog or cat? Paw pads
Dogs have ___________ foot pads. 1 carpal, 1 metacarpal, 1 for every digit (including dewclaw)
A root hair ________ are nerve endings that connect hair bulb deep in the follicle. Plexus
A ________ hair follicle occurs when more than one hair grows out of a follicle. Compound
Dogs have compound follicles in which __ hairs typically grow in each follicle. 3
An _______ ________ allows hair to stand at an angle. Errector Pilli
What are the 3 types of hair in dogs and cats? primary, secondary (undercoat), tactile (whiskers, these are sensory)
A ________ (oily) gland is not found in the nose and foot pads. Sebaceous
Sebaceous glands secrete _________ and are connected to hair follicles; these make the hair oily. Sebum
What is the purpose of sebaceous glands? Waterproof skin, keep things from drying out, keeps hair from getting brittle, inhibit bacteria growth
What are the 2 types of sweat glands? Eccrine, apocrine
__________ is the equilibrium of the body; active balance maintenance. Homeostasis
The _______ ______ keeps epithelial tissue connected to underlying tissue. Basement membrane
Epithelial cells do not have _____ _____. Blood vessels
What are cilia? Hair-like epitlilia projections
Cilia are _______ to the cell, not part of the cell like microvilli. attached
What types of cells have distinct sides? Squamous
Where would you find simple squamous cells? Alveoli of lungs, capillaries, lymphatic vessels, kidneys, body cavities (pleura, peritoneum)
Where would you find stratified squamous? Skin, digestive tract past the stomach, ear, vaginal canal, mucous membranes
Where would you find simple cuboidal? Exocrine glands, salivary glands, sweat glands, pancreas
Where would you find simple columnar? GI and respiratory tract.
Pseudostratified columnar have how many layers? 1
What shape are pseudostratified columnar? Columns w/ cilia
Where would you find pseudostratified columnar? Respiratory tract
What is produced by goblet cells? Mucous
What is the epithelial cell type that can stretch? Transitional
Where are Transitional cells found? Bladder, ureters, uterus
Where would you find glandular cells? Pancreas
What are two categories of connective tissue? Proper and specialized
CT proper includes....? Dense and loose tissue
CT specialized includes....? Bone, blood, cartilage
What 3 structural elements do all connective tissues have? Matrix (ground tissue), fibers, cells
What is the matrix of blood? Plasma
What are the 3 types of loose CT? Areolar, adipose, reticular
What are the 3 types of dense CT? Dense regular, dense irregular (sheet), dense elastic
What are the 3 types of cartilage? Hyaline, fibrocartilage (strongest), elastic
Hyaline cartilage is also called _______, and is the most abundant to reduce friction in joints. Gristle
What are the 3 types of muscle? Smooth, cardiac, skeletal
What are the 2 layers of the dermis? Papillary, reticular
Created by: PimaVT



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