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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 AP World History Test

Why was France considered an advanced country in the 1700s? Large population, prosperous foreign trade, center of Enlightenment, culture widely praised and imitated by world
What “unrest” existed in France in the 1700s? Bad harvests, high prices and taxes, disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment ideas of Locke, Rousseau, and Voltaire
Define: Old Regime. Social and political system of France
Define: Estates. Three large social classes under system
Name some privileges of the privileged classes. Access to high offices, exemptions from paying taxes, not granted to members of third.
Describe the 1st Estate. Owned 10% of French land, provided education and relief services to poor, contributed 2% of income to government
Describe the 2nd Estate. Made up of rich nobles, accounted for 2% of population, owned 20% of land, paid almost no taxes
What did the 1st and 2nd Estates think of the Enlightenment ideas? As radical notions that threatened their status and power
Describe the 3rd Estate. 97% of population, all 3 groups differed greatly in economic conditions
Define: Bourgeoisie. Middle class (bankers, owners, merchants, professionals, artisans) often well educated
What did the 3rd Estate think of the Enlightenment ideas? Believed in its ideals of liberty and equality
Describe the workers of France. 2nd and poorest group within 3rd Estate (tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, domestic servants)
Describe the peasants of France. Largest group within 3rd Estate, paid half their income, resented clergy and nobles
What 3 things had caused a desire for change in France? Enlightenment ideas, economic troubles, weak leader
How had the American Revolution influenced the French? French inspired by success of American Revolution
What did the French people begin to demand? Equality, liberty, and democracy
Describe 4 - 5 problems in the French economy. 1. France’s economy was in decline, causing alarm 2. Production and trade were expanding rapidly 3. Heavy burden of taxes, prices were rising 4. Bad weather, crop failures, grain shortage
Why was there so much debt in France? Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette did extravagant spending; Louis XVI inherited debt from previous kings and borrowed to help American Revolutions
Describe Louis XVI. Indecisive and allowed matters to drift; payed little attention to government advisors; impatient for governing details
Describe Marie Antoinette. Gave Louis poor advice; unpopular with French because was royal family member of Austria, involved in controversial court affairs; spent lots of money; “Madame Deficit”
Define: Estate-General. Assembly of representatives from all 3 estates
How did Louis XVI deal with the debt? Imposed taxes on nobility
Which estates controlled the Estates-General & how? 1st and 2nd Estate
What did the 3rd Estate want to change? Government
Identify: Sieyes. Clergyman sympathetic to 3rd Estate’s cause
What was the National Assembly? 3rd Estate delegates who passed laws and reforms in name of French people
What was proclaimed on June 17, 1789? Establishment of National Assembly
What was the first act of revolution? Proclaiming end of absolute monarchy and beginning of representative government
What was the Tennis Court Oath? Pledge by members of France’s National Assembly, where they vowed to continue meeting until they drew up new constitution
How did Louis XVI respond to the Tennis Court Oath? Stationed his mercenary army of swiss guards around Versailles
Define: Mercenaries. Soldiers paid to fight in foreign armies
What rumors spread about the king? Suggestion that Louis was intent on using military force to dismiss National Assembly
How did the people respond to these rumors? Began to gather weapons to defend city mobs
What happened on July 14, 1789? Mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed a Paris prison called Bastille
Compare July 14th with July 4th. 14th = French national holiday (Bastille Day); 4th = US national holiday
What was the Great Fear? Wave of senseless panic that spread through French countryside after Bastille storming in 1789
Why did women march to Versailles in October 1789? Were rioting over rising price of bread
What happened at the March to Versailles? Women brandished knives, oxes, other weapons; demanded National Assembly take action to provide bread; broke into palace and killed guards; demanded Louis and Marie return to Paris
What did reformers do the night of August 4, 1789? Made speeches declaring love of liberty and equality
What influenced the Declaration of Rights of Man? Declaration of Independence
What was contained in the Declaration of Rights of Man? Stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”
What was the war slogan of the French Revolution? “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
What did Olympe de Gouges write? Declaration of Rights of Women
What did the National Assembly do the Catholic Church? Took over and declared church officials and priests to be elected and paid as state officials
What did Louis XVI try to do in June of 1791? Escape France
What did the Constitution of 1791 create? Limited constitutional monarchy
Define: Legislative Assembly & its function. Legislative body that had power to create laws and approve or reject declarations of war
Differentiate between radicals, (lefts) moderates (center), and conservatives (rights). -Radicals opposed monarchy idea and wanted changes in way government ran -Moderates wanted some changes in government but not as many as radicals -Conservatives upheld idea of limited monarchy and wanted few changes in government
Who were the èmigrès and what did they want? Nobles and others who fled France; hoped to undo Revolution
Who were the sans-culottes and what did they want? Culottes or “those without knee breeches”; wanted Revolution to bring even greater changes in France
What did foreign monarchs think about the French Revolution? Feared similar revolts might break out in own countries
Why & on whom was war declared in April of 1792? On Austria and Prussia because they wanted French to restore Louis to position as absolute monarch
How did France do in this war? Began badly for French
What was Tuileries and what happened there? Palace of the royal family; 20,000 men and women invaded palace
What happened in the September massacres? Citizens raided prisons and murdered over 1,000 prisoners; many nobles, priests, and royalist sympathizers fell victims
How did the Legislative Assembly respond to the chaos in France? Set aside Constitution of 1791 that declared king disposed, dissolved assembly, and called for election of new legislature
What was the National Convention and what did they do? New governing body that quickly abolished monarchy and declared France a republic
Identify: Jacobins. Club members who were part of Jacobin Club radicals
Identify: Marat. Jacobin who edited newspaper and called for death of all who continued to support king
Identify: Danton. Lawyer and Jacobin; club’s most talented and passionate speaker; known for devotion to rights of Paris’s poor people
Who lead the National Convention? Jacobins
What did the National Convention do to Louis XVI? Reduced his role from that of king to citizen and prisoner; tried for treason and sentenced to death with beheading
Define: Guillotine. Machine used for beheading
List all the countries that banned together to fight France. Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, Persia
What did the Convention do in February 1793? Convention ordered draft of 300,000 French citizens between ages 18 - 40
Who were the enemies of the Revolution within France? Peasants, priests, rival leaders
Identify: Robespierre. Jacobin leader who set out to build “republic of virtue” by wiping out every trace of France’s past
What did the radical Jacobins do to religion? Considered it old-fashioned, dangerous, and closed all churches in Paris
What was goal of the Committee of Public Safety? Protect Revolution from its enemies
What happened to the enemies of the revolution? Tried in morning and guillotined in afternoon
What was the period called? “Reign of Terror”
Who was killed in the Reign of Terror? Fellow radicals and those who wholed Revolution
What was the Directory? Two-house legislature and executive body of five upper middle class men
As revealed in 1859 A Tale of Two Cities, what was Charles Dickens’ view of the French Revolution? Hatred because he didn’t like injustices done to people
What was Edmund Burke’s opinion of the revolution? Fight against injustice
What was Thomas Paine’s opinion of the revolution? Supportive; thought it was great cause
Created by: 00ranafa