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Nursing Final

Small Animal Nursing Final - VTT 226

Level of supervision: Induction of anesthesia Direct
Level of supervision: Cystocentesis Indirect
Level of supervision: Administration of morphine to a painful animal Indirect
Level of supervision: Extraction of an extremely loose incisor that does not require elevation Immediate
Level of supervision: Endotracheal intubation Direct
Level of supervision: Blood draw from the jugular Indirect
Level of supervision: Apply a cast Direct
Level of supervision: Feline neuter Not allowed at any level
Level of supervision: Urinary catheterization for sample collection Indirect
Level of supervision: Fill a prescription Indirect
Hearing other sounds, like peristalsis of the stomach, outside of the thoracic cavity is termed: Referred sounds
How many lung fields are there to ascultate? 8
What 7 things are included in a signalment? Identification, species, breed, age, gender, reproductive status, color/markings
How are ventilation and oxygenation different? Ventilation is the movement of air. Oxygenation is how the gases exchange in the body.
What is the term for drugs administered via the GI tract? Enternal
What is the term for drugs given by injection? Parenteral
What is metabolism? It is the biochemical process of the building up and breaking down of a substance by the body.
T or F: A patient with heart disease would normally be placed on a high rate of IV fluids. False
Fluid inside a cell is termed: Intracellular
Fluid located outside the cell but inside the vascular space is termed: Extracellular
Fluid located outside the cell extravascularlly is termed: Interstitial
How often should peripheral catheters be changed? Every 72 hours
Venipuncture should be done as _______ as possible. Distally
The lateral saphenous is a common blood draw location for ______. Dogs
IA injections are given into a ______. Joint
What is the term for drugs given into the gastrointestinal tract? Enternal
What is the term for the movement of a drug from the injection site into the blood stream? Absorption
The amount of solute dissolved into a solvent is called ________. Concentration
What tube is used for holding urine because it is sterile and empty? Red Top Tube (RTT)
_______ top tubes are used for coagulation tests. Blue (BTT)
________ top tubes are used for CBC and blood smears. Lavender (LTT)
What is a common injection given which has no absorption time? I.V.
Why would you remove the needle from the syringe and tube tops before putting blood into a tube? To prevent RBC destruction.
We give injections into __________, not arteries, so the injection will be delivered to the liver for metabolism. Veins
What does PROM stand for? Passive range of motion
The heart rate is best heard between the ____ and ____ intercostal spaces. 2nd and 5th
An inanimate object that transmits disease is called what? Fomite
A _________ infection is caught in a clinic or hospital. Nosocomial
What are some acceptable ways to euthanize? Injection, decapitation, electrocution, bullet, CO2 chamber, inhalant Ax overdose, cervical dislocation, exsanguination
When the heart rate and pulse don't match, the animal has a ________ deficit. Pulse
_______ fluids contain large particles. Colloid
Crystalloids are used to _______. Rehydrate
Measure an orogastric tube from the _______ to ________ in dogs. Nares to last rib
Measure an orogastric tube from the ______ to ________ in felines. Nares to 10-11th rib
What drug stimulates appetite? Diazepam
___________ tubes are rarely used because of the accompanying complications. Pharyngostomy
What does CERF stand for? Canine Eye Registration Foundation
What is the most common catheter? Over-the-needle
D5W means? 5% dextrose in water
List all of the supplies that you will need to place a peripheral IVC: Clippers, cleansing solution, rinse solution, IVC, tape, flush, +/- T-port, cap or fluid line
Prep between ribs __ and __ for a thoracocentesis. 7 and 9
What part of the eye will a fluorescein stain detect abnormalities of? Cornea
What 3 bones are used for marrow sampling? Pelvis, proximal femur, proximal humerus
_____ intention involves suturing a wound immediately. First
_________ wound closure involved suturing 3 to 5 days after the wound before granulation tissue. Delayed primary
_______ intention allows granulation tissue to close a wound. Second
______ intention involves suturing after formation of granulation tissue. Third
What type of sling immobilizes the hip? Ehmer sling
Let blood _____ in the SST before spinning in a centrifuge, so you don't get plasma. Clot
Serum doesn't contain __________ and platelets, like plasma does. Clotting factors
What does a PEG tube mean? Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
J tubes are distal to the _________. Duodenum
__________ starts isotonic then becomes hypotonic. Dextrose
Don't give _______ (crystalloid) subcutaneously. Dextrose
How do you determine viscosity of fluid? Stretch drop between fingers
When a dog is aggressive, go for the ________ vein. Saphenous
What is the easiest vein to get a large amount of blood? Jugular
What does alcohol do to veins when applied? Tightens (constricts)
The ________ bandage layer provides compression. Tertiary
The ________ bandage layer prevents movement and provides padding. Secondary
What are some examples of crystalloid fluids? LRS, 0.9% sodium chloride, plasmalyte
What are some examples of colloid fluids? Plasma, whole blood, hetastarch, oxyglobin
What does BSE stand for? Breeding Soundness Exam
What happens to the heart rate as dehydration becomes worse? Why? The heart rate raises because the blood pressure is much lower
What are the clinical signs that an animal is 8-10% dehydrated? Moderate to marked decrease in skin turgor, moderate tachycardia, decreased pulse strength
What are colloids most commonly used for? Increasing blood pressure, volume expansion
What is the most common drug used for injectable euthanasia? Sodium pentobarbital
What does NAVTA stand for? National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America
What does AVMA stand for? American Veterinary Medical Association
List 4 indicators of pain in an animal. Lashing out, change of eating and drinking, hiding from people, change in sleeping habits
How much "continuing education" is needed? At least 30 hours, every 3 years
What is malpractice? Conduct which falls below the standard of care which causes injury to the animal
What is negligence? A failure to exercise the standard of care. Knowingly does not provide a standard of care
What is incompetence? Lack of knowledge or skill.
What types of restraint are there? Non-contact, physical, object, chemical
How many mcL in an mL? 1,000
The pulse is best felt on the ________ artery in dogs and cats. Femoral
Signs of 5-6% dehydration. Slight decrease in skin turgor, MM’s tacky, eyes slightly sunken, no pathologic tachycardia.
Signs of 6-9% dehydration. Moderate decrease in skin turgor, MM’s tacky to dry, slight tachycardia, normal pulses, CRT prolonged, eyes sunken.
Signs of 10-12% dehydration. Skin remains tented or absence of turgor, dry MM, prolonged CRT, eyes very sunken, tachycardia, weak rapid pulses, moderate mental depression.
Normal temperature for dogs and cats. 100-102° Fahrenheit
Canine HR? 60-160 bpm
Feline HR? 120-180 bpm
How many grades of heart murmurs are there? 6
A pneumothorax refers to an accumulation of ____ in the thorax. Air
Canine RR? 8-20
Feline RR? 8-30
What does R.E.R stand for? What does it mean? Resting energy requirement. The number of Kcals the body needs to maintain basic functions of life.
What does D5W mean? 5% dextrose in water
What is coagulopathy? A decrease in clotting function.
What is phlebitis? Inflammation/irritation of the veins.
What are some complications that can come from placement of an esophagostomy tube? Invasive, can cause vomiting.
What do stirrups do? Helps keep a bandage from falling off.
What 4 things would you tell an owner to watch for, when sending home a pet with a bandage? Swelling, foul odors, movement of the bandage, cleanliness
Should an abdominocentesis be prepped like a sterile surgery? Yes
What does FNA stand for? Fine needle aspirate
What is the best thing for orphaned neonates to eat? Commercially prepared milk
What is the average gestation for cats and dogs? 63 days
What supplies are needed for neonatal resuscitation for a c-section? Clean/dry towel, warm/dry place, bulb syringe, oxygen, suture, scissors, drugs, needles for acupuncture
Animals 20lbs and over get a ____ drip set. Animals under 20lbs get a ____ drip set. Macro (15gtt/mL) Micro (60gtt/mL)
What is the primary pathogen of Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis ("Kennel Cough")? Bordetella bronchiseptica
What is a dosage? The amount of drug a patient needs determined by manufacturers recommendations based on their weight.
What is a dose? The amount of drug a patient gets, the product of the dosage calculation.
What is a solute? A dissolved substance, the powdered form of a drug.
What is a solvent? The dissolving substance, like sterile water.
What is a solution? A solute combined with a solvent, may be expressed as a %.
What is a concentration? The amount of solute dissolved in a solvent, usually expressed as mgs/ml (weight per volume, w/v).
Signs of fluid overload? Tachypnea, fluid from the nasal cavity, foam in ET tube, moisture in the lungs
Types of IVC? Over the needle, through the needle, butterfly, multi lumen
What is tonicity? The solute concentration (osmolarity) of a solution and its effect on cellular fluid.
How does movement of water occur? From a hypotonic area to a hypertonic area.
What is the maintenance fluid rate for animals? 40-60mLs/kg/day
Math formula for diluting drugs into fluids. Small% x mLs ÷ Big%
What is gavage? Introduction of material into the stomach.
Types of feeding tubes? Argyle, guide wire, silicon, red rubber
Orogastric Tube placement steps. Pre-measure & mark the appropriate tube. Lubricate. Insert mouth speculum. Pass the tube to the pre-marked point. Use an empty syringe to aspirate. Administer food or medications. Flush. Pinch tube before removing to help prevent aspiration.
What is an idiopathic seizure? A primary seizure. No cause is evident and is presumed to be genetic.
What is a cryptogenic seizure? A secondary seizure. A result of a brain abnormality (brain tumor or trauma).
What is a reactive seizure? Results from an extracranial metabolic abnormality like hypoglycemia.
What happens during a generalized seizure? Entire body stiffens up and then twitching.
What happens during a partial or focal seizure? Dazed, glassy look, stare at the wall, no response to stimuli. Facial twitching or head pressing.
What is an ictal? A seizure.
What is CHF? Congestive Heart Failure
What is CRI? Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Created by: PimaVT



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