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Radiology Final

Diagnostic Imaging Final - VTT 224

QuestionAnswer
When rollers in the wash tank don't squeegee the film, it causes...? Water spots
What is the personal monitoring badge that measures the amount of radiation per quarter year called? Dosimeter badge
What reduces scatter radiation by limiting the size of the primary beam? Collimator
What is this view called? Patient is placed in sternal recumbency, with right front leg extended on the table and the beam includes humeral to radial-ulna joint? AP or CC right carpus view
A term for a radiograph with an overall grey appearance caused by excessive radiation or expired film. Fogging
What is the view called? Dorsal recumbency using a trough, beam centered at umbilicus and midline, collimated to T9 and greater trochanter of the femur. V/D view of abdomen
What is the view called? Laterally recumbent w/ foam wedge under chest, beam centered at caudal aspect of the scapula to approx the 5-6th intercostal space midway between the sternum and spine, collimated to the shoulder joint and L1 Lateral view of thorax
What is the distance between the safety light and the work station? 4 feet
What is fluorescense? The luminescence happening during the period of radiation and will terminate after completion of x-ray exposure.
What determines the number of electrons produced in the cathode? mA
What are the PPA? Apron, gloves, thyroid shield, and goggles
What tissue is most affected by radiation? Thyroid, gonads, bone, lymph tissue
What is the maximum dose of radiation per year, per person? 5 REM
What is the view called? Wings of the ilium are symmetric, obturator foramen are equal and symmetric, edges of the dorsal acetabulum are super imposed through the femoral heads and the patella is centered over the femur. V/D hip OFA films
Appears as a tree or a lightning strike. Static electricity on film.
What can be used safely to clean screens? Distilled water and isopropyl alcohol
What does developer do? Converts silver halide grains to metallic silver.
What is the view called? Dog is on his side, beam is centered at the caudal aspect and midway between the xiphoid and the spine. Collimated to T7 and the great trochanter of the femur. Lateral abdomen view
What is a kissing artifact? Only one side of the emulsion is processed due to films overlapping in the machine.
How is a black irregular border on film caused? Light leak into the box of film or film drawer.
What is the degree of whiteness and blackness on film? Contrast
What substance will absorb the most x-ray beams? Metal
What is foreshortening? Distortion of size of the object, due to it not being parallel with the cassette.
What does fixer do? Removes unexposed silver halide crystals.
What is a latent image? Image on the film, before developing the film.
What is a brown, dingy looking film caused by? Old developer
What absorbs a light photon and becomes sensitive to the developer solution? Silver halide crystals
What screen speed needs less mA and less detail is achieved? Fast speed
What is the image produced by x-ray beam called? Radiograph
The number of cycles per unit of time is called? Frequency
What are flat x-ray beams used to make 2 or 3 dimensional cross sectional images called? CT (computed tomography)
What is positive and appears white? Radiopaque
What products are produced when electrons collide with a positively charged anode? Heat and x-rays.
What is the vertebral formula of dogs and cats? 7, 13, 7, 3. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum
What are the two types of contrast? Barium sulfate and organic iodides
What is the heel effect? Unequal distribution of x-ray intensity due to the angle of the focal spot.
What is the most common form of ultrasound used in veterinary medicine? B-mode display (brightness mode)
This results in a black area or radiolucent on film, after the contrast is given. Negative contrast
What is a contrast study of an artery called? Angiogram
What are radiographs taken before giving contrast material called? Survey film
Technical term for the abbreviation MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging
What is reverberation? An artifact resulting from poor contact between the probe and the skin during an ultrasound. Happens when you don't use enough gel.
What is the perfect patient for a contrast study? Measures 15-20 cm laterally at the diaphragm and weighs 40lbs.
What is a cathode? Negative portion of the x-ray tube.
What is a focal spot? The target area on the anode where the electrons hit it.
What type of material makes up the filament? Tungsten
What is the least amount of change to mAs, to produce a barely noticeable difference in density? 30%
What is a non-invasive way to look into the gastrointestinal system? Endoscopy
What is the type of scale produced when a picture has high contrast from low kVp? Short grey scale
What is an ultrasound of the heart called? Echocardiogram
What is a transducer? The hand piece for the ultrasound machine.
What is the component of nuclear medicine that is given IV to treat feline hyperthyroidism? Radioiodine 131
What is magnification in radiographs? An increase in the overall size of the image, resulting in loss of detail from an increase in object film distance.
What is the term for absorbed radiation? RAD
Blurring at the edges is called the ________ effect. Penumbra
What is the primary controller of density? kVp
Increasing ______ increases the speed of electrons therefore increasing penetrating power of the beam. kVp
mA (milliamperage) is also called what? Tube current
Decrease kVp by _____% to halve density. 16%
Increase kVp by ______ % to double density. 20%
Doubling mAs will _______ density and halving mAs will halve density. Double
______ supervision is required for assistants to take radiographs. Direct
Longer wavelength x-rays that result in decreased contrast come from ________. Scatter
Radiographic _______ is the difference of density between adjacent areas on the film. Contrast
The focusing cup, tungsten filament and electron cloud are associated with the _______ side. Cathode
The rotor and focus spot are on the ________ side. Anode
The amount of radiation absorbed by the body is the _______ dose. Absorbed
The _________ dose is the amount of radiation needed to damage body tissues. Effective
What is a study of the stomach called? Gastrogram
The darkroom light should be _____ inches from the table. 48
What processor factors can cause a bad image? Temperature and time
What is the tray that holds the cassette under the table called? Bucky tray
For safety while taking radiographs, what should be considered? Decreased time, increased distance and increased shielding.
Is it OK to have a finger or two in the primary beam? No
How should PPA be stored? Flat or on a stand
What is OFD? Object film distance
What is FFD? Focal film distance
Will increased OFD cause magnification? Yes
What are the 5 factors that effect radiograph quality? Density, distortion, detail, contrast, scatter radiation
What two factors, not associated with PPA, help reduce exposure to scatter radiation? Collimator and grid
Is there a light emitting screen on both sides of the cassette? Yes
What two colors can a screen emit? Green or blue
What are the 5 steps of processing a film? Development, stopping the development, fixing, washing, drying
What the Sante's Rule formula? 2 x (tissue thickness in cm) + FFD + grid factor = kVp
What is Sante's Rule? Calculation for determining approximate kVp for given exposure.
What substance will absorb the least amount of x-ray beams? Air
Instrument used to measure a patient for radiographs? Calipers
What does OFA stand for? Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
What items can aid you in positioning when taking radiographs? Sandbags, foam wedges, tape or ties, troughs
What is a double contrast study? Using both positive and negative contrast agents, allows for better detail of creases and folds.
What contrast should be used first, for a double contrast study? Negative contrast, then positive contrast
What does IVP stand for? Intravenous pylogram
How do you calculate mAs? mA x time
How do you calculate mA? mAs ÷ time
How do you calculate time? mAs ÷ mA
When mAs goes up, kVp must...? Go down.
When kVp goes up, mAs must...? Go down.
mAs always doubles or halfs, while kVp must go up or down by....? 20% up, 16% down
What is negative and appears black? Radiolucent
What are the two types of luminescence? Fluorescence & phosphorescence
Screen speed combined with film speed is called? System speed
What is an artifact? Any unwanted radiograph density that forms a blemish on the film.
Created by: PimaVT