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Parasitology

Common parasites of animals in the US.

QuestionAnswer
Otobius megnini: Class Arachnida
Otobius megnini: Order Acarina
Otobius megnini: Family Argasidae
Otobius megnini: Common name Spinose Ear Tick
Otobius megnini: Host species Horses, SACs, dogs, cats, wildlife, humans, cattle
Otobius megnini: Distribution Western North America
Otobius megnini: Number of hosts 1
Otobius megnini: Site of infestation Ear canal
Otobius megnini: Life cycle timing Unfed nymphs can survive 2 months. Nymphs on host 1-7 months (exception to general soft tick ecology)
Ixodes scapularis: Class Arachnida
Ixodes scapularis: Order Acarina
Ixodes scapularis: Family Ixodidae
Ixodes scapularis: Common name Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis: Host species Nymphs: rodents, adults: deer
Ixodes scapularis: Distribution Eastern US
Ixodes scapularis: Number of hosts 3
Ixodes scapularis: Pathogen Borrelia burdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Ixodes scapularis: Disease Lyme disease (worldwide), ehrlichiosis (granulocytic anaplasmosis; dogs, horses, humans - US, EU, Asia)
Ixodes pacificus: Class Arachnida
Ixodes scapularis: Order Acarina
Ixodes scapularis: Family Ixodidae
Ixodes scapularis: Common name Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis: Host species Nymphs: rodents, adults: deer
Ixodes scapularis: Distribution Eastern US
Ixodes scapularis: Number of hosts 3
Ixodes scapularis: Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Ixodes scapularis: Disease Lyme disease (worldwide), ehrlichiosis (granulocytic anaplasmosis; dogs, horses, humans - US, EU, Asia)
Amblyomma americanum: Class Arachnida
Amblyomma americanum: Order Acarina
Amblyomma americanum: Family Ixodidae
Amblyomma americanum: Common name Lone star tick
Amblyomma americanum: Host species Nymphs: foxes, etc., Adults: Cattle, etc.
Amblyomma americanum: Distribution Texas to Maine
Amblyomma americanum: Clinical signs Severe anemia
Amblyomma americanum: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Cytauxzoon felis/Cytauxzoonosis/SE US
Amblyomma americanum: Number of hosts 3
Amblyomma maculatum: Class Arachnida
Amblyomma maculatum: Order Acarina
Amblyomma maculatum: Family Ixodidae
Amblyomma maculatum: Common name Gulf Coast tick
Amblyomma maculatum: Host species Nymphs: foxes, etc; Adults: cattle, etc.
Amblyomma maculatum: Distribution Gulf Coast
Amblyomma maculatum: Clinical signs Severe anemia
Amblyomma maculatum: Number of hosts 3
Amblyomma maculatum: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Hepatozoon americanum/Hepatozoonosis/SE US
Dermacentor andersoni: Class Arachnida
Dermacentor andersoni: Order Acarina
Dermacentor andersoni: Family Ixodidae
Dermacentor andersoni: Common name Rocky Mountain wood tick
Dermacentor andersoni: Host species Nymphs: rodents; Adults: Larger animals
Dermacentor andersoni: Distribution Northwest
Dermacentor andersoni: Clinical signs Tick paralysis
Dermacentor andersoni: Number of hosts 3
Dermacentor andersoni: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Rickettsia rickettsi/Rocky Mountain spotted fever/North and South America; Francisella tularensis/Tularemia; Anaplasma marginale/Bovine anaplasmosis/SE, SW, West Coast, Great Britain
Dermacentor albipictus: Class Arachnida
Dermacentor albipictus: Order Acarina
Dermacentor albipictus: Family Ixodidae
Dermacentor albipictus: Common name Winter tick
Dermacentor albipictus: Host species Moose, other wildlife
Dermacentor albipictus: Distribution North America - widespread
Dermacentor albipictus: Clinical signs Massive infestations seen in spring, pruritis, hair loss, debilitation
Dermacentor albipictus: Disease none
Dermacentor albipictus: Total life cycle time 1 year
Dermacentor variabilis: Class Arachnida
Dermacentor variabilis: Order Acarina
Dermacentor variabilis: Family Ixodidae
Dermacentor variabilis: Common name American dog tick
Dermacentor variabilis: Host species Nymphs: rodents; Adults: larger animals
Dermacentor variabilis: Distribution North America - widespread
Dermacentor variabilis: Clinical signs Tick paralysis
Dermacentor variabilis: Number of hosts 3
Dermacentor variabilis: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Rickettsia rickettsi/Rocky Mountain spotted fever/North and South America; Francisella tularensis/Tularemia
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Class Arachnida
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Order Acarina
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Family Ixodidae
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Common name Brown dog tick
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Host species Dogs, humans, others
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Distribution US and SE Canada (survives indoors in colder areas)
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Number of hosts 3
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Babesia canis; Ehrlicia canis/Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis/Worldwide (tropical/temperate); Anaplasma platys/SE US, South America, EU, Japan
Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Total life cycle time As little as 2 months; Unfed adults can survive over a year
Rhipicephalus microplus: Class Arachnida
Rhipicephalus microplus: Order Acarina
Rhipicephalus microplus: Family Ixodidae
Rhipicephalus microplus: Host species Cattle, etc
Rhipicephalus microplus: Distribution Eradicated in US
Rhipicephalus microplus: Number of hosts 1
Rhipicephalus microplus: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Babesia bigemina/Bovine babesiosis (= Texas cattle fever)/Central and South America, AU, EU, Africa; Anaplasma marginale/Bovine anaplasmosis/SE, SW, West Coast, Great Britain
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Class Arachnida
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Order Acarina
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Family Ixodidae
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Common name American cattle tick
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Distribution Eradicated in US
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Host species Cattle, Nilgai
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Number of hosts 1
Rhipicephalus annulatus: Pathogen/Disease/Distribution Babesia bigemina/Bovine babesiosis (=Texas cattle fever)/Central and South America, AU, EU, Africa
Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis: Class Arachnida
Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis: Order Acarina
Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis: Type Tunneling sarcoptiform
Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis: Host species Dogs, Humans (not great hosts)
Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis: Site of infestation Ears, lateral elbows, ventral abdomen
Sarcoptes scabiei v. canis: Clinical signs Initially erythematous, then papular; becoming crust, thickened with alopecia, pruritis
Sarcoptes scabiei v. suis: Class Arachnida
Sarcoptes scabiei v. suis: Order Acarina
Sarcoptes scabiei v. suis: Type Tunneling sarcoptiform
Sarcoptes scabiei v. suis: Host species Pigs
Sarcoptes scabiei v. suis: Site of infestation Head (ears, nose, eyes) initially; spreads to neck, shoulders, back
Sarcoptes scabiei v. suis: Clinical signs Inflammation, erythema, alopecia, with intense pruritis
Notoedres cati: Class Arachnida
Notoedres cati: Order Acarina
Notoedres cati: Type Tunneling sarcoptiform
Notoedres cati: Host species Cats, rabbits
Notoedres cati: Site of infestation Starts on ears; spreads to face, neck, paws, and hindquarters
Notoedres cati: Clinical signs Yellow crusts, thickened skin, alopecia (most common cause of feline scabies)
Psoroptes cuniculi: Class Arachnida
Psoroptes cuniculi: Order Acarina
Psoroptes cuniculi: Type Surface sarcoptiform
Psoroptes cuniculi: Host species Rabbits, livestock, horses, SACs, cervids
Psoroptes cuniculi: Site of infestation Ears
Psoroptes cuniculi: Clinical signs Dried crust in pinna, brown discharge; otitis media may result
Psoroptes ovis: Class Arachnida
Psoroptes ovis: Order Acarina
Psoroptes ovis: Type Surface sarcoptiform
Psoroptes ovis: Species Sheep
Psoroptes ovis: Site of infestation Wooled areas of the body
Psoroptes ovis: Clinical signs Extremely pruritic; constant rubbing leads to self-mutilation; wool falls out; skins become thickened, cracks, bleeds easily; debilitation and sometimes death
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Class Arachnida
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Order Acarina
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Type Surface sarcoptiform
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Host species Cattle
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Site of infestation Withers, back, rump
Psoroptes ovis: Distribution ERADICATED IN US
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Distribution ERADICATED IN US
Psoroptes ovis = P. bovis: Clinical signs Pruritic areas consisting of papules, crusts, thickened skin
Chorioptes spp: Class Arachnida
Chorioptes spp: Order Acarina
Chorioptes spp: Host species Ruminants, camelids, horses
Chorioptes spp: Site of infestation Skin of lower hind legs, tailhead, escutcheon
Chorioptes spp: Clinical signs Skin becomes thickened; not overly pruritic
Otodectes cynotis: Class Arachnida
Otodectes cynotis: Order Acarina
Otodectes cynotis: Type Surface sarcoptiform
Otodectes cynotis: Host species Dogs, cats, ferrets
Otodectes cynotis: Site of infestation External ear, ear canal; has been found around base of tail
Otodectes cynotis: Clinical signs Intense pruritis; dark cerumen; head shaking can cause aural hematoma; untreated can lead to tympanic membrane perforation
Demodex spp: Host species Dogs, cats, cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, horses
Demodex spp: Site of infestation Dogs: muzzle, face, bony projections on extremities; Cats: face, neck, eyelids; Cattle/goats: shoulders, trunk, lateral neck; Pigs: eyes and snout; Horses: neck and withers, then head, forelimbs, back
Demodex spp: Clinical signs Dogs: Localized demodecosis; patchy alopecia, non-pruritic; Cats: alopecia, erythema, scaly or crusty dermatitis; Cattle/goats: pinhead and larger sized pustules; Pigs: pustules; Horses: pruritis, alopecia with scaling or pustules
Demodex spp: Class Arachnida
Demodex spp: Order Acarina
Demodex spp: Type Non-sarcoptiform
Cheyletiella spp: Class Arachnida
Cheyletiella spp: Order Acarina
Cheyletiella spp: Type Non-sarcoptiform
Cheyletiella spp: Common name Walking dandruff
Cheyletiella spp: Host species Rabbits, cats, dogs
Cheyletiella spp: Site of infestation Generalized (mites are motile)
Cheyletiella spp: Clinical signs Dry, scaly dermatitis; mild alopecia; perhaps skin thickening
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Class Arachnida
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Order Acarina
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Type Non-sarcoptiform
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Common name Nasal mite
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Host species Dogs
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Site of infestation Nasal and paranasal sinuses
Pneumonyssoides caninum: Clinical signs Generally non-pathogenic; sneezing, sinusitis, labored breating, CNS disorders
Felicola subrostratus: Class Insecta
Felicola subrostratus: Order Mallophaga
Felicola subrostratus: Type Chewing louse
Felicola subrostratus: Host species Cats
Felicola subrostratus: Clinical signs Irritation, pruritis, scratching, licking, restlessness; loss of condition, poor weight gain, decreased milk production (cattle), etc.
Trichodectes canis: Class Insecta
Trichodectes canis: Order Mallophaga
Trichodectes canis: Type Chewing lice
Trichodectes canis: Host species Dogs
Trichodectes canis: Clinical signs Irritation, pruritis, scratching, licking, restlessness; loss of condition, poor weight gain, decreased milk production (cattle), etc.
Linognathus setosus: Class Insecta
Linognathus setosus: Order Anoplura
Linognathus setosus: Type Sucking lice
Linognathus setosus: Host species Dogs
Linognathus setosus: Clinical signs ANEMIA, irritations, pruritis, scratching, licking, restlessness, loss of condition, poor weight gain, decreased milk production (cattle), etc
Linognathus setosus: Pathogen Acanthocheilonema reconditum
Trichodectes canis: Pathogen Dipylidium caninum (tape worm)
Haematopinus suis: Class Insecta
Haematopinus suis: Order Anoplura
Haematopinus suis: Type Sucking lice
Haematopinus suis: Host species Pigs
Haematopinus suis: Clinical signs ANEMIA, irritations, pruritis, scratching, licking, restlessness, loss of condition, poor weight gain, decreased milk production (cattle), etc
Haematopinus suis: Pathogen Swine pox virus
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: Class Insecta
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: Order Siphonaptera
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: common name Flea (Felis = most common flea of cats and dogs)
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: Host species Cats, dogs, humans, others
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: Distribution Throughout US (particularly prevalent in humid areas)
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: Clinical signs Irritation, biting and scratching; severe infestation can cause anemia; flea allergy hypersensitivity/dermatitis - intensely pruritic reaction
Ctenocephalides felis & canis: Pathogen Dipylidium caninum, Acantocheilonema reconditum, Bartonella henselae
Pulex irritans: Class Insecta
Pulex irritans: Order Siphonaptera
Pulex irritans: Common name Human flea
Pulex irritans: Host species Humans, others
Pulex irritans: Distribution Most common flea biting humans in CO
Pulex irritans: Clinical signs Irritation, biting and scratching; severe infestation can cause anemia; flea allergy hypersensitivity/dermatitis - intensely pruritic reaction
Pulex irritans: Pathogen Yersinia pestis (plague)
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Class Insecta
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Order Diptera
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Type Obligatory myiasis-producing flies
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Common name American primary screwworm
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Host species Any warm-blood animals
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Distribution ERADICATED IN US
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Clinical signs Maggots in uncontaminated wound (+ history of travel to endemic area = REPORTABLE)
Lice: Total life cycle time As little as 3-4 weeks; Off host: eggs don't hatch, nymph/adult can survive <1 week
Fleas: Total life cycle time 3 weeks to 20 months
Cochliomyia hominivorax: Total life cycle time L3-pupae-adult: 1 - several weeks; total time as low as 24 days (larvae cannot overwinter where soil freezes)
Hypoderma bovis: Common name Northern cattle grub
Hypoderma bovis: Host species Cattle (rarely horses/humans)
Hypoderma bovis: Distribution Northern US and Canada
Hypoderma bovis: Clinical signs "Warbles" - bumps on dorsal side of animal; eggs glued to hair
Hypoderma bovis: Total life cycle time 1 year
Hypoderma bovis: Disease Can cause CNS disease (epidural resting site)
Hypoderma lineatum: Common name Southern/common cattle grub
Hypoderma lineatum: Host species Cattle (rarely horses/humans)
Hypoderma lineatum: Distribution US and Canada
Hypoderma lineatum: Clinical signs "Warbles" - bumps on dorsal side of animal; eggs glued to hair
Hypoderma lineatum: Total life cycle time 1 year
Gasterophilus nasalis: Common name Horse stomach bot
Gasterophilus nasalis: Host species Horses
Gasterophilus nasalis: Site of infestation Intermandibular space to duodenum
Gasterophilus nasalis: Clinical signs Eggs glued to hairs; 3rd stage larvae in feces (spring); inflammation and mucosal ulceration
Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis: Common name Horse stomach bot
Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis: Site of infestation Lips to duodenum/rectum
Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis: Clinical signs Eggs glued to hairs; L3 in feces (spring)
Gasterophilus intestinalis: Common name Horse stomach bot
Gasterophilus intestinalis: Site of infestation Forelegs/shoulders to margo plicatus/saccus cecus
Gasterophilus intestinalis: Clinical signs Eggs glued to hairs; 3rd stage larvae in feces (spring); inflammation and mucosal ulceration
Hypoderma bovis: Class Insecta
Hypoderma bovis: Order Diptera
Hypoderma bovis: Type Obligatory myiasis-producing flies
Hypoderma lineatum: Class Insecta
Hypoderma lineatum: Order Diptera
Hypoderma lineatum: Type Obligatory myiasis-producing flies
Gasterophilus nasalis: Class Insecta
Gasterophilus nasalis: Order Diptera
Gasterophilus nasalis: Type Obligatory myiasis-producing flies
Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis: Class Insecta
Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis: Order Diptera
Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis: Type Obligatory myiasis-producing flies
Oestrus ovis: Class Insecta
Oestrus ovis: Order Diptera
Oestrus ovis: Type Obligatory myiasis-producing flies
Oestrus ovis: Common name Sheep nasal bot
Oestrus ovis: Host species Sheep/goats
Oestrus ovis: Site of infestation Nostrils
Oestrus ovis: Clinical signs Purulent rhinitis/sinusitis, head shaking, restlessness, snorting, can lead to brain injury
Hypoderma lineatum: Clinical signs Can lead to bloat/choke (esophageal resting site)
Created by: Chovenga