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VTT ER Procedures

Metabolic/anesthetic emergencies Hypo/Hyperthermia

QuestionAnswer
True or False: Insulin allows glucose to enter the cell. True
True or False: DKA is a life threatening emergency. True
True or False: DKA will change the PH of the blood stream. True
True or False: Urinalysis is not helpful when diagnosing a DKA patient as it does not give us a blood glucose level. False, it tells us if there is spillover which is a symptom of DKA
True or False: Serial blood tests are required of hospitalized DKA patients. True, it tells us if the treatment is working and will help you monitor the blood ph so they don't go from acidosis to alkalosis which can happen
True or False: Bloodwork is typically a valuable indicator of a patient with Addison's Disease. True
True or False: Stress can bring on an Addisonian Crisis. True
This test is used to determine if a patient has Addison's Disease. ACTH Stim
Ketonic breath is often described as smelling like? sweet or like nail polish remover
A DKA patient may present with what? Vomiting and oral/GI ulceration, Pre-renal failur severe dehydration and/or hypovolemia, hypertension, and neurological symptoms
One of the most important factors in a successful recovery of a DKA patient at home is what? Client education and understanding
Should a DKA patient always have access to water? Yes, they'll be dehydrated
Will a DKA patient need aggressive fluid therapy? Yes
Should a DKA patent be put on an insulin CRI? Yes
Patients in Addisonian Crisis often have what type of shock? Hypovolemic
What are two (lab) symptoms you would find in a DKA patient? High serum glucose (diabetes), Glucose in urine (spillover), Ketones in urine and or serum (ketosis), and a low blood Ph (acidosis)
Please list 3 presenting symptoms of a patient in Addisonian Crisis. Very weak, dehydrated, bradycardic, depressed
Please list two treatments for patients in Addisonian Crisis. Steroids (Dexamethasone SP injection and oral steroids after first day), Dextrose administration (either IV bolus of 25% solution or less or CRI in fluids
When do we treat hyperthermia? When the temp is above 106 except for breeds where that is within the normal limits
What happens to the body as temperature increases? The organs start to fail. Kidneys fail, GI becomes compromised, and the brain damage becomes possible.
What are some physical symptoms hyperthermic animals experience? Seizures, vomiting, excessive panting, depression, & collapse
How do you treat hyperthermia? Please be detailed. Cold water/Ice water baths (not typically recommended) Alcohol on foot pads Cool IV fluids With them down and cool with a fan.
Besides monitoring temperature, what is one of the most important parameters we monitor in hyperthermic patients? Mentation
What are the varied stages (temperatures) for hypothermia? Mild hypothermia 98.5-99.5 degrees F Moderate hypothermia 97-98 degrees F Severe hypothermia <90 degrees F
What is the difference between passive and active warming? With passive you don't have an outside heat source
What is active rewarming? With active you are using heat sources other than just the animal’s own natural body heat. It can take the form of everything from warmed towels to hot water bottles to incubators.
What is passive rewarming? Passive you are using measures such as blankets to keep them from losing heat while allowing their bodies to generate the heat to warm them up.
What types of patients may present with hypothermia? Those exposed to cold, those immersed in cold water, those who have a systemic disease like renal (esp cats), young puppies and kittens, anesthesia patients, patients presenting with hypervolemic shock, hypertensive patients, and debilitated patients.
Explain why you would use pain medication while actively re-warming a patient. Patients that have had body temps below 93 degrees can experience substantial pain on rewarming
Why would you get an ECG on a cold patient who presents with no palpable pulses? Because while they might not have a palpable pulse or audible heart beat they may still have one and if you use an ECG you can get otherwise unreadable heart activity
Created by: Adeprey4311