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Bacteriology

Species, disease, clinical signs, vaccines, antibiotics, transmission, etc.

TermDefinitionundefined
Strep equi ssp equi: Species? Horse
Strep equi ssp equi: Disease? Strangles, bastard strangles, pupura hemorrhagica, myopathies
Strep equi ssp equi: Clinical? Lymph node abscess in neck, widespread internal damage
Strep equi ssp equi: Vaccine? Yes - not frequently used. Doesn't stimulate mucosal immunity, can't give IM, if given intranasal dose must be frequent and regular. Foals have maternal immunity until weaning.
Strep equi ssp equi: Virulence? Protein M, capsule (antiphagocytic factors), B-hemolysis, exotoxins (vascular dilation, exudation of plasma and neutrophils)
Strep equi ssp equi: Transmission? Carried in gutteral pouch, nasal shedding for 2-3 weeks "Catarrahal strangles" - older horses with residual immunity can be carriers.
Strep suis: Species? Pig
Strep suis: Disease? Endocardidtis, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, meningitis
Strep suis: Vaccine? None - bacterin ineffective in preventing outbreaks, and interferes with maternal antibodie
Strep pyogenes: Species? Humans
Strep pyogenes: Disease? Pharyngitis/tonsilitis
Strep pyogenes: Virulence? B-hemolytic
Strep pyogenes: Transmission? Can be commensal/endogenous
Strep pneumonia: Species? Humans/primates Guinea pigs Rats Horses
Strep pneumonia: Disease? Humans/primates: pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis Guinea pigs/rats: pneumonia Horses: inflammatory lower airway disease (occurs in Great Britain in 2-3 y/o horses)
Step pneumonia: Transmission? Person-to-person
Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus: Species? *Horses (most common pyogenic agent) Rabbits Cows Swine Humans Ferrets (pneumonia) "Alpaca fever"
Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus: Disease? Most common pyogenic agent of horses (normal flora) Mastitis Abortion Peritonitis Wound infections
Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus: Clinical? Lymph node abscess
Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus: Vaccine? No: normal flora in horses
Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus: Virulence? B-hemolytic
Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus: Transmission? Normal flora of horses (endogenous)
Strep porcinus: Species? Pig
Strep porcinus: Disease? Cervical lymphadenitis
Strep porcinus: Clinical? Jowl abscesses
Strep canis: Species? Dog
Strep canis: Disease? Neonatal septicemia Genital, skin, wound infections Canine toxic shock syndrome Necrotizing fasciitis
Strep canis: Clinical? Hemorragic lungs Hemothorax
Strep canis: Virulence? B-hemolytic
Strep agalactiae: Species? Cattle
Strep agalactiae: Disease? Chronic bovine mastitis Agalactia (fault/absent milk production)
Strep agalactiae: Virulence? Synergistic "arrow-head" hemolysis at intersection of Strep and Staph
Enterococcus spp (usually faecium): Species? Dog Others
Enterococcus spp (usually faecium): Disease? Endocarditis 10-15% of canine UTI: ascending infection from feces
Enterococcus spp (usually faecium): Vaccine? None - normal intestinal flora
Enterococcus spp (usually faecium): Virulence? A-hemolytic
Enterococcus spp (usually faecium): Transmission? Normal intestinal flora
Staphylococcus spp: Species? Many
Staphylococcus spp: Shape? Gram + cocci; tend to be in clusters; coagulase + types more pathogenic (S. aureus, intermedius)
Staphylococcus spp: Disease? Chronic pyoderma
Staphylococcus spp: Clinical? Inflamed skin, pustules, abscess, suppuration
Staphylococcus spp: Virulence? Invasive enzymes (hyaluronidase, proteases, lipases, fibrinolytic enzymes); Cytolysins and leukotoxins can cause cell death (alpha-toxin); capsules and Protein A (an FcR) are antiphagocytic superantigens (TSS); urease contributes to phosphate uroliths
Staphylococcus spp: Transmission? Most infections are endogenous (commensals of the URT and skin of all warm blooded animals). Strains usually specific to a species (ecotypes)
Staph aureus: Species? Humans and many mammals
Staph aureus: Disease? Abscesses, mastitis, osteomyelitis, bumble-foot
Staph delphini: Species? Dolphins horses, camels, mink, domestic pigeons
Staph intermedius: Species? Wild pigeons
Staph hyicus: Species? Piglets
Staph hyicus: Disease? Exudative epidermitis (greasy pig disease)
Staph epidermidis: Types? Synonym for coagulase negative staph types (less pathogenic)
Staph epidermidis: Disease? Infections from medical devices, subclinical bovine mastitis
MRSA/MRSP: Species? Many (MSRA usually human)
MRSA/MRSP: Antibiotics? NOT fluoroquinolone, ceftiofur, aminoglycoside (resistance risk factors); most MRSP resist trimethoprim, gentamicin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, macrolides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones (less resistant to tetracyline, chloramhenicol); produce B-lactamase
MRSA/MRSP: Virulence? MRSP has mecA resistance gene; MRSA has SCCmec (resistant to non-B-lactam antibiotics, gene is transferrable)
Staph pseudintermedius: Species? Dog (most common pyogenic agent)
Staph pseudintermedius: Disease? Pyoderma, infections of the respiratory tract, bones, joints, wounds, etc.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Species? Horse Sheep
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Shape? Small, peomorphic Gram + rods (palisade = parallel; Chinese letters = sharp angles; club and fliamentous shaped)
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Disease (sheep/goats)? Caseous lymphadenitis (chronic disease in sheep/goats).
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Disease (horses)? Ulcerative lymphangitis (pigeon breast/fever, dryland distemper) in horses (exudate is odorless, thick , tan and blood tinged) - percarditis and pleuritis, folliculitis, facial cellulitis and panniculitis
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Clinical (sheep/goats)? Multiple chronic abscesses resulting in debilitation, weight loss, poor production. Abscesses form in lymph nodes with onion-like concentric layers. Tissue necrosis.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Clinical (horses)? Deep abscesses in inguinal and pectoral regions. Abscesses form in lymph nodes with onion-like concentric layers. Tissue necrosis.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Vaccine? Toxoid vx for sheep/goats, variable protection from bacterins. No vx studies in horses.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Virulence? Toxic cell-wall lipid (protects from lysosome enzymes) induces intradermal hemorrhagic necrosis. Sphingomyelinase-specific phospholipase D (exotoxin) causes hemolysis, increased vascular permeability, and cytolysis
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: Transmission? Colonizes skin and mm in lesions. Survives on exposed pen floor 10 days, in hay and bedding >1 year. Enters through abrasions, shearing wounds, insect bites (stable flies, horn flies, house flies. Contaminated fomites or soil)
Strep suis: Transmission? Some strains carried in healthy pigs (source of infection for piglets). Asymptomatic carriers source of infection for pen mates. Asymptomatic carriers can become ill with stress.
Created by: Chovenga