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Cardiac Emergencies

Dogs with cardiac disease usually have a history of what? coughing (moist, nocturnal), exercise intolerance, labored breathing, cachexia, and sometimes collapse/fainting (syncope)
Cats with a history of coughing usually have what? coughing cats usually have asthma or other pulmonary diseases
At rest dogs with congestive heart failure will often have what type of heart rate? Tachycardic at rest or develop an increased HR with mild exercise (walking)
Most animals with cardiac disease will have strong or weak pulses? Weak
Absent pulses and posterior paralysis can be seen in cats with what? Cardiomyopathy and saddle thrombus
Pulse deficits can indicate what 3 types of arrhythmias? Atrial fibrillation, premature beats, or ventricular tachycardia
Jugular vein pulses and ascites (free fluid in the abdomen) may indicate what? right-sided heart failure
Most cardiac emergencies will have what? concurrent respiratory problems
What is heard with pulmonary edema? Pulmonary crackles and wheezes
What are some respiratory symptoms that can occur with cardiac emergencies Breathing is often labored, with both inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea, and the rate is increased MM’s may be injected, pale, or cyanotic
Cats with congestive heart failure are often what? Hypothermic with a slow heart rate (100-120) with weak pulses
What are some diagnostics we can run to diagnose cardiac emergencies? Auscultation, ECG, Echocardiography
Lack of a murmur or tachycardia in a small breed dog usually does what? Rules out congestive heart failure as the cause of dyspnea
When auscultating for suspected cardiac emergencies what are you listening for? Murmurs, gallop rhythm, or arrhythmias
Murmurs in cats are best heard where? Low along the sternum.
For an ECG how should the patient be laying? Animal should be in right lateral recumbency if possible
If the animal is dyspneic what type of EKG can be done? a standing EKG strip
What are ECGs used for? ECGs are used to evaluate rhythm, identify P-waves & QRS complexes and determine their relationship (a P-wave for every QRS), and to classify arrhythmias and determine if any treatment is needed.
How is echocardiography useful for diagnosing cardiac emergencies? Useful for identifying masses, evaluating valves (mitral valve insufficiency), and assessing wall thickness & motion (cardiomyopathy) as well as chamber size.
What is Congestive Heart Failure? A degenerative disease where the valve leaflets become knobby and thickened. Regurgitating blood causes enlargement of the left atrium and left ventricle
When considering the anatomical structures what is the most common cause of congestive heart failure? Mitral regurgitation - Leakage can increase blood volume and pressure in the left atrium which can increase pressure in the veins leading from the lungs to the heart and resulting in fluid build-up in the lungs
What percent of small breed dogs over 10 years of age are affected by congestive heart failure? 30%
What breeds are predisposed to congestive heart failure? Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Poodles, Mini Schnauzers, Chihuahuas, Cocker Spaniels, Dachshunds, Boston Terriers, & Fox Terriers
How long does CHF take to progress? It depends, but typically it can take years
Animals with CHF are literally doing what? Drowning in their own fluids
What do owners need to realize about CHF patients? That treatment must be aggressive or the animal should be euthanized for humane reasons
How will a CHF patient present and progress? Present with tachypnea, harsh lung sounds, inspiratory crackles that progress to crackles/wheezes throughout respiration with a distinguishable heart murmur
Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy is primarily seen in what breeds? Dobies, “giant” breeds, and other large dogs
What are the signs of Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy? Signs include dyspnea, tachypnea, exercise intolerance, weight loss, ascites, and syncope. Signs, especially the weight loss, can be dramatic and sudden, occurring over 2-4 weeks
In boxers canine dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by what? Severe ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. If the arrhythmias can be controlled they can live 1-3 years before the DCM and heart failure takes them
Upon physical examination canine dilated cardiomyopathy shows what symptoms? On PE, there are weak pulses +/- pulse deficits, soft mitral or tricuspid murmurs, muffled heart and lung sounds if pleural effusion or inspiratory crackles with pulmonary edema
Feline dilated cardiomyopathy was caused by what? taurine deficency
What are the 3 feline cardiomyopathies from most to least common? Hypertrophic, Restricted, Dilated
Most cats with cardiomyopathy show what signs? Most cats have marked respiratory distress, muffled heart/lung sounds, rapid, shallow respirations
Feline heart disease can often lead to what? Feline thromboembolism
Feline thromboembolism is also known as what? Saddle Thrombus
What are the "classic" symptoms of a saddle thrombus? Posterior paresis with weak or absent pulses in the rear limbs; foot pads are pale, and the toenails won’t bleed when cut; the gastrocnemius and tibial muscles are rock hard by 10-12 hrs post-clot
Where is the saddle thrombus most commonly located at? At the aortic trifurcation
What may be the first sign of heart disease? Saddle thrombus
What are the causes of Pericardial Disease? Neoplasia, infectious, hernia, left atrial tear, trauma, coagulopathy, etc
What are the signs of Pericardial Disease? predominantly of right-sided heart failure, pulsus paradoxus (pulse intensity decreases with inspiration) muffled heart sounds, weakness, collapse, syncope, sudden death
When does Cardiac tamponade occur? When enough fluid accumulates in the pericardium to restrict ventricular filling and contraction
On radiograph, the heart looks like what? A basketball
What must be performed to diagnose Pericardial Disease? Pericardiocentesis
Sinus tachycardia is due to what? Underlying condition
Atrial tachycardia and atrial flutter are due to what? Severe underlying structural heart disease
Atrial fibrillation is a symptom of what? serious underlying heart disease
With Atrial fibrilation conversion to normal sinus rhythm is likely or not likely Not likely
VPC’s are a sign of what? Underlying condition
Ventricular tachycardia may occur when? 12-48 hrs after shock, trauma, or GDV
VPC stands for what? Ventricular Premature Contraction
What is cachexia Weakness and wasting of the body due to severe chronic illness.
Is left sided heart disease considered to be in the thoracic cavity or the abdomen? The thoracic cavity
Is right sided heart disease considered to be in the thoracic cavity or the abdomen? The abdomen
Which test is used to identify masses in the heart? echocardiography
Which test is used to evaluate heart valves for insufficiency? echocardiography
Which test is used to assess wall thickness and motion of the heart? echocardiography
Which test is used to evaluate chamber size of the heart? echocardiography
Which test is used to evaluate the rhythm of the heart? ECG
Which test is used to classify arrhythmias? ECG
Which test is used to identify P-waves, QRS complexes? ECG
Created by: Adeprey4311



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