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Nematodes of Dogs

QuestionAnswer
Toxocara canis: Roundworm or ascarid. Adults are found in the small intestines. Mainly a bigger problem with puppies. Don't usually see patent roundworm infections in adult dogs. Larval migrations causes liver and lung damage and death in young dogs. VLM in humans.
Toxocara canis continued: Causes abdominal distension, intermediate diarrhea, dull hair coat, and occasional vomiting, more like coughing. Dogs infected by ingesting embryonated eggs or paratenic hosts, or by transplacental migration of larval in fetal puppies.
Toxocara canis cont: PPP is 6 weeks for adult, 4 weeks for puppies. Direct lifecycle. Single celled eggs are passed from the host in the feces and develop to the infective stage in the environment. Mother dogs may have cyst in muscle tissue that are passed on the puppies.
Baylisascaris procyonis: Raccoon roundworm. Eggs are in the soil and they must be ingested, dogs may be infected by eating mammalian IH. Eggs are not infective when passed in the feces and require approximately 30 days to become infective.
Baylisascaris procyonis continued: Diagnosed by finding the eggs or adults in the feces. Dogs should avoid raccoon defecation sites. Zoonitic, very serious parasite when it is outside of the raccoon and is put into another species. PPP is 5 wks.
Physaloptera: Stomach worm. Causes gastritis and vomiting. Adult worms attach to the stomach wall with their mouth parts. Diagnosis; endoscopy or eggs found in the feces. Very difficult to control in dogs that are outside.
Physaloptera continued: Ingestion of arthropod IH or mammalian PH. Crockroach, beetle, or cricket IH ingest eggs shed in dog or cat feces. PH are reptiles. PPP is 58 to 83 days.
Spirocerca lupi: Lives in the esophagus and stomach, makes nodules in the esophagus. DH are canids, wild felids, donkeys, and goats. IH is the dung beetle. PH are lizards, chickens, mice, and rabbits.
Spirocerca lupi continued: Adults in nodules lay eggs that produce into L1 and pass through the fistulous tract and feces. Eggs are ingested by the intermediate host, they hatch and develop to L3.
Spirocerca lupi cont: The DH may ingest the infected beetles. Migration occurs from the coeliac artery and the thoracic aorta to the esophagus. Migration in arteries may cause hemorrhage, granuloma, stenosis or aneurysm and rupture.
Spirocerca lupi cont: Nodules in esophagus which may cause obstruction, hemorrhage, may induce hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy and cancer, could look similar to megaesophagus.
Spirocerca lupi cont: Diagnosed by fecal flotation with a high specific gravity, radiographs, endoscopy or necropsy. PPP is 5 to 6 wks.
Ancylostoma caninum: Hookworm of dogs. Causes anemia, weakness, and poor growth in dogs. Causes CLM in humans. Most common in dogs that are in warmer climates.
Lifecycle of Ancylostoma caninum: Larvae develop in soil and infect dogs by skin pentration, or ingest the larvae also. Can use mammalian IH. Also can be transmitted by transmammary transmission. Anemia associated with eggs in feces is a way of diagnosing the parasite. PPP is 2 weeks.
Toxacaris leonina: Roundworm of both dogs and cats. Not a zoonotic parasite. Simple lifecycle, all larvae follow a mucosal migration, developing in the mucosa of the small intestines, migrating to the intestinal lumen to mature. No prenatal transmission no age resistance.
Toxacaris leonina continued: Egg ingestion or predation of infected foculative intermediate host is only dogs, and cats can be infected. Causes chronic diarrhea and ill thrift. PPP is 6 weeks.
Trichuris vulpis: Canine whipworm. Causes typhlitis, weight loss, diarrhea, anemia and colitis. Adults have a body that is shaped like a whip. One end enbeds itself into the wall of the large intestine or cecum. Egg is lemon shaped with plugs.
Trichuris vulpis continued: Dogs are infected by ingesting eggs from contaminated environments. Eggs are very resistant and very difficult to kill when they are in the body and in the environment. May also pentrate the skin.
Lifecycle of Trichuris vulpis: Infective L1 develop in the egg in about 1 mo. but does not hatch unless it is swallowed by a suitable host. PPP is 3 months.
Capillaria bohmi: Nasal capillariasis, a parasite of the frontal sinus of the fox along with the dog. The DH is infected by ingestion of eggs containing infective larvae, although an earthworm as the IH may be involved. Eggs have a thimble surface.
Capillaria aerophila: Fox lungworm. May cause respiratory distress. Lifecycle is direct, earthworms may be involved as PH. Parsite harbors within the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles of dogs, cats, and foxes. Eggs are found on fecal flotation, tracheal wash. PPP is 40 days.
Capillaria putorri (Anochotheca putorri): Parasite of small intestines of the bear, hedgehog, raccoon, swine, and is occasionally found in the domestic cat. Causes gastritis and vomiting. Infections in cats are subclinical.
Lifecycle of Capillaria putorri: DH are infected following ingestion of larvated eggs. Adults develop in the gastrointestinal tract and produce eggs that are passed in the feces. Eggs found on centifugal or simple flotation.
Uncinaria stenocephala: Northern hookworm of dogs. Causes hookworm disease anemia. Diagnosed by anemia and eggs in the feces. PPP is 2 weeks.
Lifecycle of Uncinaria stenocephala: Larvae develop in soil; oral infection is the most common route of entry into the host; percutaneous infection. Can us mammalian intermediate host, also can be transmitted by transmammary.
Strongyloides stercoralis: Threadworm. Causes diarrhea and potential for strongyloidiasis in severely immunocompromised dogs, pneumonia and dermatitis. Causes servere illness and diarrhea in human infants. Transmitted by larvae developing in the soil and penetrating the skin.
Strongyloides stercoralis continued: This parasite can be diagnosed many different ways including fecal flotation, larvated eggs and larvae in feces, Baermann technique, skin scraping when dermatitis is involved. PPP is 1 week.
Oslerus osleri (Filaroides osleri): Causes verminous nodular tracheitis and bronchitis. Larvae passed in feces or saliva. Seen 2 yrs dogs. Migrate via lympathic and portal venous system to the lungs. Encyst at tracheal bifurcation and mainstream bronchi, development of nodules.
Oslerus osleri continued: Can be diagnosed by radiographs and larvae in the feces. Difficult to treat. There are no reported anthelmintic medications. Control includes that pups be removed from infected mothers by c section and raised in isolation from other infected dogs.
Oslerus osleri cont: Tracheal worm. Metastrongyloidea. Coils in nodules at bifurcation of trachea. Coughed up and swallowed and pass through the feces. Larvea are passed to the pups by licking, main route of transmission. PPP is 10 wks.
Created by: BananaGirl05