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VTT Exotics Quiz 1

LVTs roll,regulating agencies, small mammals

Where can veterinary technicians interact with exotic animals? Zoos, Wildlife rehabilitation centers, research facilities, teaching hospitals/Universities, Private practices
What role does the technician play in exotics private practice? restraint of patients for the DVM, blood draws, IVC placement, radiography, anesthesia and surgical monitoring, supportive care, liquids, injections, TPR
What are some of the different species that may be seen in exotics medicine? fish, aoxtls ,turtles, snakes, iguanas, canaries, parrots, raptors, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, ferrets, capybaras, prairie dogs, sugar gliders, hedgehogs, bobcats, servals, foxes, monkeys
Where do exotic patients come from? breeders (local, national, international) pet stores ( local, national chains) craigslist, rescues and shelters
What is H1N5 Bird flu
What are the two types of animal importation that are seen? legally imported or illegal importation (smuggling) as well as lay people finding animals and bringing them home as pets ( still illegal)
Where are birds scanned for microchips? in the front on the body
What must animals pass through on their legal importation journey? Why? USDA quarantine stations (animals coming into the US from foreign countries).Animals are screened for diseases and kept in quarantine to ensure they are healthy. When sick animals are identified the spread of disease can be prevented
What is placed on an animals leg when they pass through a USDA quarantine station and what information does it provide? identification bands, tells us where the animal came from,
What problems can arise from illegal importation? poor conditions causing chronic illness, infectious diseases that may be spread to other animals as well as people
Who regulates exotic animals internationally? CITES appendix listings
What does CITES stand for? Convention of international trade on endangered species
Who regulates exotic animals federally? USDA, APHIS, USFWS
What is the USDA? United Stated Department of Agriculture
What does APHIS stand for and what agency are they associated with? Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, associated with the USDA
what is APHIS responsible for? They manage quarantine stations and are responsible for any animal coming into the united states
Who regulates exotic animals with WA state? Washington state department of agriculture and Washington department of fish and game
What is the WA state department of agriculture responsible for? All animals coming into or leaving the state
What is WA department of fish and game responsible for? They are responsible for wildlife within the state, grants permits for falconry and wildlife rehabilitators
Is it legal to care for/ nurse injured wild life at home w/o a rehabilitation permit? NO
What is zoonosis? a disease that is transmitted directly from an animal to a human
What are the 5 things that cause zoonotic diseases? bacteria, virus, fungus, protozoan, parasites
Define bacteria single celled microorganism that lacks a nucleous
Define virus A microorganism that can only replicate inside the cell of another living organism
Define fungus Has a nucleous and cell membrane, has a rigid cell wall
Define parasite An animal that lives off another animal without benefit to the host
Define Protozoa a single celled microorganism that has a nucleus and a cell membrane
Who is at higher risk of contracting a zoonotic disease? Anyone who works with animals, infants & the elderly, anyone who is immunosuppressed ( cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic bacterial or viral infections, or some medications
What is a fomite? is any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as germs or parasites, and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
What is a vector? an organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another.
Rabies is caused by what? Bubonic Plagues? Salmonellosis?Ringworm? Scabies? virus, bacteria, bacteria, fungus, mite(sarcoptes)
What is the proper term for ringworm? Dermatophyte / Dermatophytosis
Name 5 disease transmission routes Direct contact (dead/alive animals/bodily fluids/tissues), inhalation, exposure to urine or feces, contaminated bedding or dishes, ingestion
Who can we contact to report zoonotic disease cases locally? Statewide? Federally? King County Health Department, WA state department of health, State veterinarian (WA state department of agriculture) CDC (center of disease control)
How can we prevent zoonotic the spread of zoonotic diseases? don't allow animals to roam freely, don't let animals near food prep areas, don't share animal & human dishes, don't soak reptiles in bathtubs or sinks (use reptile tub) wash hands after contact w/ exotics& their habitats, wear gloves when cleaning
What is the scientific name for a ferret? Mustelo putorius furo
What is the proper way to restrain a ferret? Scruff & hang, bribe with a treat (ferretone/nutrical) pick up quickly ( some will bite)
How can you easily examine a ferrets mouth? use a pen to open the mouth to examine the oral cavity
What is the ferrets "Shock system"? G.I tract
Where can you take a blood sample from a ferret? What is the best option for a large sample? Jugular, anterior vena cava, lateral saphenous, cephalic, & femoral. The anterior vena cava best for large samples.
What may be required to obtain a blood sample from a ferret, especially if collecting from the anterior vena cava? inhalant anesthesia
What vaccination is a legal requirement in ferrets? What other diseases are they prone to that can be vaccinated for? rabies, distemper
How frequently must ferrets be re-vaccinated for rabies? once a year
What are baby ferrets called? kits
How often must ferrets be vaccinated for distemper? kits get a series, adults need to be boostered annually
What zoonotic GI disease are we concerned about w/ ferrets? Parasitic? Salmonella, coccidia
What viral disease in ferrets is referred to a green slime disease? Epizootic catarrhal enteritis, Corona virus
What is a trichobezoar? What 2 ways can it be treated? Hairball. Laxatives, Surgery
What does catarrhal mean? mucous
How is IBD diagnosed in ferrets? What are the symptoms? treatment/ biopsy. malformed stool, weight loss. . azathioprine
What is the common cause of stomach, oral and SI ulcers in ferrets? helicobacter mustelae
How is helicobacter mustelae treated? Amoxicillin, metronidazole, famotidine ,sucralfate, pain control, hand feeding
What are common types of neoplasia found in ferrets/
Are mast cell tumors in ferrets removed? only if they are huge, or the animal is bothering it
Where are lymphomas commonly found in ferrets? internal/external, GI lymph nodes, mediastinum
What is the scientific name for rabbits? Oryctologus cuniculus
How should a rabbit be handled /restrained? football carry, hide face on arm & support bottom w/ hands.partial scruff may be used, just to get hands under the rabbits bottom, "Rabbit Burrito" can be used, making sure to pull towel tight under chin, then over the body tightly to control front legs
What is binking? jumpy happy dance
Why is it important to always support a rabbits hind legs? They can break their back from force by hyperextending legs
Where can blood be drawn from a rabbit? cephalic, lateral saphenous, jugular, lateral ear tip
Why would we not attempt a lateral ear tip blood draw on a pet rabbit? they are unlikely to hold still long enough to get a full sample from this slow type of draw
What is a lagomorph? an animal belonging to the order Lagomorpha, rabbits, hares, pika
What are common dental concerns in rabbits? malocclusion of incisors, malocclusion of molars, tooth root abscesses
What are the symptoms of dental problems? treatment? inappetance, weight loss, drooling (slobbers) Treatment: corrective dental work ( drilling/shaving of teeth until even, etc...
What is a common cause of abscesses in rabbits? Pasteurella
What does caseous refer to? white, creamy, cheesy
By the time a doe reaches age 5 she will have some degree of what? uterine neoplastic change
What are 3 GI diseases commonly found in rabbits? Trichobezoar, bloat, GI stasis
What preventative measure can be made to prevent trichobezoar? brushing, lint rolling,
What is GI Stasis/ slowed or stopped GI mobility
What are the symptoms of GI stasis in rabbits? inappetance, decreased stool production, noticeable discomfort
What are the causes of GI stasis? low fiber intake, bacterial imbalance in cecum, foreign material, dental issues
How is GI stasis diagnosed in rabbits? PE, radiographs
What is the treatment for GI stasis in rabbits? pain control, antibiotics, antigas meds, mobility enhancer ( reglan) supportive care
Kale and cruciferous vegetables cause what in rabbits? gas and bloating
in rabbits, a common malocclusion of the mandibular teeth will often cause them to jut which way? inwards towards the tongue
in rabbits, a common malocclusion of the maxillary teeth will often cause them to jut which way? outwards towards the cheek teeth
What is a female rabbit called? Doe
By the time a doe reaches age 5 she will have some degree of what? uterine neoplastic change
Rabbits are monogastric hind gut fermenters, what does this mean?? They have a single stomach and their large cecum has a population of bacteria that's digests the high fiber content in their diets
How should rats be handled/restrained? using claw grip, picked up by tail then cradled, swaddled in appropriate sized towel. scruffing can be done but often makes them scream and thrash around
What are the common escape behaviors seen in rats? vocalization, scratching, biting, urinating, defecating
What are common sites for venipuncture for rats? jugular, lateral saphenous, ventral or lateral tail vein (small amounts)
What are common injection sites for rats? IM, SQ, IP
What can IP administration be used for? most common? fluids can be given IP. Most common use of IP is to administer euthanasia solution
When administering euthanasia solution IP where should you aim and why? aim fir a kidney to ensure the death is as quick as possible
What is almost always necessary in order to obtain a blood sample from a rat? inhalant anesthesia
What are common health concerns in rats? Neoplasia: mammary gland, pituitary gland tumor. Malocclusion of incisors, Chronic murine respiratory syndrome
What are common causes of chronic murine respiratory syndrome? Bacterial: mycoplasma sp, streptococcus. Viral: Sendal, sialodacryoadenitis virus
What are the symptoms of chronic murine respiratory syndrome? sneezing, porphyrin discharge, head tilt, inappetance
What is porphyrin? pigment that makes blood red (porphyrin tearing is NOT blood, just porphyrin stained tears
What is the treatment for chronic murine respiratory syndrome? antibiotics, supportive treatment (feeding is critical with these animals)
Define carnivore animal that feeds on flesh
Define precocial hatched or born in an advanced state and able to feed itself almost immediately
Define crepuscular an animal that appears or is active at twilight ( low light)
Define copraphagia the eating of feces or dung
Define Dermatophytosis any superficial fungal infection caused by a Dermatophyte (ringworm)
Define herbivore animal that feeds on plants
Define altricial hatched or born in an undeveloped state and requiring care and feeding by the parents
Define lagomorph a mammal of the order Lagomorpha ; a hare, rabbit, or pika.
Define porphyrin any of a class of pigments (including heme and chlorophyll) whose molecules contain a flat ring of four linked heterocyclic groups, sometimes with a central metal atom.
Define omnivore an animal that eats both plants and flesh
Define Diurnal an animal that is awake during the day
Define trichobezoar hairball
Define caseous creamy, white, cheesy
Define dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
Define hindgut fermentation a digestive process seen in monogastric herbivores, animals with a simple, single-chambered stomach. Cellulose is digested with the aid of symbiotic bacteria. The microbial fermentation occurs in the digestive organs that follow the small intestine
Define nocturnal animals that are active at night
Define neoplasia the formation or presence of a new, abnormal growth of tissue.
Define hypoglycemia deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
Define placenta a flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant eutherian mammals, nourishing and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord.
Define marsupial a mammal of an order whose members are born incompletely developed and are typically carried and suckled in a pouch on the mother's belly
Define estivate of an animal, particularly an insect, fish, or amphibian) spend a hot or dry period in a prolonged state of torpor or dormancy
Define malocclusion imperfect positioning of the teeth when the jaws are closed
Define arboreal animal that lives in the trees
Define gut loaded Gut loading is the process by which an animal's prey is raised and fed nutritious foods with the intention of passing those nutrients to the animal for which the prey is intended
Define torpor a state of physical or mental inactivity; lethargy.
Define pruritus severe itching of the skin, as a symptom of various ailments
Define fur slip a chinchilla defense mechanism which allows the animal to release chunks of its fur when grabbed by another animal or person
Define fur ring tightly wound hair forming a tight ring around the penis , commonly leads to penile prolapse and penile necrosis
Define anorexia a lack or loss of appetite for food (as a medical condition).
Define deciduous milk teeth of a mammal, which are shed after a time.
Define hypsodontic8?*?*?* is a pattern of dentition with high-crowned teeth and enamel extending past the gum line, providing extra material for wear and tear. Some examples of animals with hypsodont dentition are cows and horses; all animals that feed on gritty, fibrous material
Created by: Adeprey4311



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