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VTT Equine 2

behavior, restraint, physical exams, lameness exam

What sense is a horses primary detector of danger? Vision- acute ability to detect movement
What percent of a horses vision in binocular? What is the rest of their field of vision described as? 60% - 70%, Monocular
Horses have a very keen sense of hearing, what does their hearing allow them to do? detect sound, locate sounds, determine source of sound
Why is It important to remember that horses have very sensitive tactile senses? because of this sensitivity, it is important to keep a hand on the horse when you are near it, moving around its body, or before you perform care such as temperature taking, injections etc...
What is the flehmen response? flehmen response is the act of curling the upper lip up towards the nose, often covering the nasal passages
Why do horses perform the flehmen response? response is done to trap pheromones emanating from other horses/people. After olfactory investigation the horse curls the upper lip up over the nasal passages, holds the position.Then an upward head tilt helps the phermones linger in the VNO located unde
What can it mean when a horses ears are forward? Forward set ears indicate that a horse are alert and interested in their surroundings
What is indicated by a horse who has its ears turned behind it? It is listening to whatever may be going on behind it
what does it mean when a horses ears are pinned back against the head? this horse in angry and may kick or bite
What does it mean when the ears of a horse are turned to the side? this is how a horses ears set when they are in a state of relaxation
What does it mean if a horses tail swivels rapidly?? The horse is EXTRA anxious or EXTRA alert
What does it mean if a horses legs are splayed? the horse is seconds away from being spooked
What can it mean when a horse is pawing at the ground? What about stomping? this can indicate boredom, anxiety or anger, Stomping indicates irritation
What is striking? What does it indicate? kicking forward, indicates aggression
What does it mean when a horse has droopy lips? This horse is relaxed/sleepy, possibly chewing w/o any food in its mouth, they do this when they are relaxed and thinking
Why do foals make a clacking noise/ to alert adults to their presence, basically saying im a baby be careful
What does a tensed mouth indicate in horses? anxiety, nervous, tense
What does it mean when the horses mouth is gaping open and the teeth are visible? this horse is about to bite, choking, or in pain
What does it mean when the horse holds its head elevated? Down? alert/focused, relaxed
What is a horses kick zone?? 5.5ft-8ft
Name 4 aggressive horse behaviors :-/ lunging, kicking, biting, stricking
What does it mean if the horse holds it lowered and shakes it from side to side? aggression
How is dominance established when working with herd animals?? controlling movement
The handler must ALWAYS be where when working with horses? on the same side of the horse as the veterinarian or technician
What is the proper way to approach a horse? from their left side (nearside) move calmly/slowly, talk in a natural tone to the horse,
What is the best place to make first contact with a horse? withers, from there you can proceed to gently stroke the face
NEVER stand in a horses___________ Blind spot
When walking behind a horse what is the proper distance to keep for safety? 15 feet behind the horse OR so close to the body that your body is touching them
What are the different options available for restraining horses? Haltering, leading, stock, chains, twitches
What are the 2 techniques that can be used to perform a twitch? hand twitch, mechanical twitch
What is the main means to restrain a horse? Halter and lead rope
When is a halter NOT used? Why? foals, because they have not been trained to it yet so they can be injured
describe halter placement Over the muzzle to the bridge of the nose, secure buckle strap over the poll behind the ears, lastly, buckle on the left side
How is the lead rope attached and then held? the lead rope is attached to to the O-ring on the chin strap of the halter, extra length of rope is held in the left hand and the horse is lead with the right hand
What is a stock? a stock is like a small stall, the horse is walked into it and and a kickboard or butt rope is secured behind them
How can foals be handles? young foals can be grasped around the rump and neck and shoulder area OR hold base of tail and under neck/ throat latch area. Older foals can be lead w/ a butt rope, as it sounds a rope is wrapped around the foals hindquarters to "pull" the foal forward
Foals MAY have a halter for training, However what should be remembered? NEVER use for restraint & leading. Older foals can have a lead rope attached to the halter, NEVER pull the rope as foals will resisit the pull, potentially causing injury
How is a stud chain or a lead shank used? provide extra control, DO NOT yank instead use a quick light snap
What are the different positions a stud chain/ lead shank can be placed? over the nose, under the chin, through the mouth, under the lip
are there any dangers to worry about when using a stud chain? the horse can flip over backwards in an attempt to get away from the pain
Why does a stud chain work? it s located over sensitive tissues and applies contstant light pressure
How is a shoulder twith performed? grasp the skin in front of the shoulder blade, roll, hold, and squeeze. If extra attention is needed from the horse (possibly because the single hand method has not been as effective as it could have been) two hands may be used
How is an ear twitch performed? grasp the base of the ear (not the tip) the ear is then squeezed and rotated
Why might we lift a horses foreleg ( in regards to behavior)? how would you perform this? a foreleg may help fidgety horse stand still, always life the leg on the same side of procedure being performed, Make sure to hold the leg with both hands, you can also rest the leg on your knee if you knee onto one knee
What is the purpose of preparing a tail tie? rectal palpation, or obstetric procedures
When doing a tail tie you only tie the tail to what? the horse, never to anything else , ALWAYS use quick release knots on both ends
How would you restrain a horse in lateral recumbency? Approach the horse from the back (meaning the horses back, not its bum ( because it in lateral recumbency), place your knee on the neck near the head
When restraining a down horse what are some considerations that you need to remember? 1. Remove the halter 2.cover the eyes (this will not only keep the horse as calm as possible, it will also protect the eye on the down side, pad the face and eye area,( another measure to protect the down side eye
When might standing chemical restraint be used? When physical restraint is inadequate, often used for diagnostic and monitoring procedures.
What are the primary reasons chemical restraint might be chosen over physical options? keeping the handler and horse safe, standing chemical restraint is less time consuming than general anesthesia. eliminates induction and recovery time
What is the purpose of a physical examination? evaluate for a problem, set up a baseline for future appointments, insurance exams, pre-purchase exams
During a pre-purchase exam the vet acts in the best interest of who? the buyer of the horse, the buyer also pays for the pre-purchase exam
How thorough an insurance exam is dicated by what? intended use of the animal
Always begin the physical exam with what? taking a history and inspecting the animals enviroment
When taking a history, should the focus be directed at the individual horse only? What about the rest of the herd if any? the exam should be focused on the herd rather than the individual
When taking the history what kind of questions should be asked about the herd? Are any other animals affected? What is the condition of the pasture, how is food/water distributed,other feeding practices are all animals up to date on vaccines? Has there been toxin exposure, any new animals or environmental stressors
Where is the extra length of lead rope held? In the left hand
What is a twitched used for? To get the horses attention
Which twitch is used as a last resort? Ear twitch
Why is the ear twitch used as a last resort? Because you can damage the ear and the owners do not like it
Where on the tail do you tie it? Just past the bone and flesh part of the tail
What is important to remember about restraining a horse in lateral recumbency? Protect the down eye & facial nerve, also it's all in the head
What type of Chemical restraint is used? Standing
Why is standing chemical restraint used? safer for the handler and horse, horse can stay standing through the procedure, less time consuming than general, eliminates induction/recovery
What is the Purpose of the PE? Evaluated for a problem, set up a baseline for future appointments, insurance examination, pre-purchase exam
Who typically performs the PE on horses? Veterinarian
Owners may attempt to do what before calling the vet? Treat
Is open mouth breathing normal for horses? No, horses are nasal breathers, and are not able to breathe through their mouths.
What are the steps in the physical exam? History, Visual Observation, RR, Lung Auscultation, Pulse Rate, Heart Auscultation, Temp
What is the most difficult artery to get a pulse from? Carotid Artery
What is the most convenient artery to get a pulse from? Facial Artery
Auscultation of the heart is best heard on which side? The left
Why should you listen to both side of the heart? Because some murmurs are only heard on the right side
Why is it important to visually observe the horse from a distance? You may notice things about them that may only be visible while they are in a relaxed state or that are simply more easily seen from a slight distance such as gait, posture, and body condition.
When taking respiratory rate what should you pay attention to? Effort and depth
What is costo-abdominal breathing When both abdominal and costal muscles are similarly sharing in respiratory movements.
Is costo-abdominal breathing normal in horses? Yes
What is it important to do when auscultating the lungs? Listen to several areas for several breaths on both sides.
Are pulse rate and heart rate the same thing? No, but they should match
What are the six places that you can get a pulse from on a horse? Facial, transverse facial, coccygeal, dorsal, lateral & medial digital, & Carotoid
Where do we normally take temperature on a horse? Anally
What is it important to remember when taking a temp on a horse? Don't let go because it can be sucked up, you may even want a thermometer with a circle so you can tie a string to it and clip it to the tail.
How do you take a temp on a horse - list the steps Stand next to the horse (touching the horse always with one hand or some part of you), Face caudally, grasp the tail near the base and elevate just enough to get clear entrance, rub perianal area with a gloved hand, gently insert
Created by: Adeprey4311



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