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VTT Equine 1


Foal under 1 year, still at mothers side
suckling thoroughbred, still nursing
weanling a horse that has just been weaned
yearling a horse between 1-2yrs of age
Short yearling 1-1.5yrs of age
Long yearling 1.5-2 years of age
Colt male horse under the age of 4
Filly female horse under the age of 4
Mare female horse over age 4
Broodmare female horse used for breeding
Stallion/Stud adult male horse used for breeding
Gelding castrated male horse
Mule product of a female horse and male donkey
Hennie product of a male horse and a female donkey
zebroid product of a zebra and any other equidae
Jack male donkey
Jenny female donkey
Which is the slowest movement gait of a horse? walk
a trot is the equivalent of what? jogging
What is the fastest movement gait of a horse? gallop
What is the 2nd fastest movement gait of a horse? canter
What are the western ridding disciplines? pleasure, stock, cutting
What are the English riding disciplines? saddle seat, dressage, H/J, eventing
How are horses measured? In "Hands" from ground to withers
What is a hand? about 4 in
How are miniature horses measured? from the ground to where the last true hair on their mane falls
When grouping by size a horse that is less than 14.2 hands is considered what?? a pony
When grouping by size a horse that is greater than or equal to 14.2 hands is considered what? a light horse (basically all horses other than draft)
heavy/draft horses are classified as such not because of their height but due to their what? body type
When grouping horses by temperament what are the 3 categories? cold, warm, hot bloods
What qualities determine a cold blood horse? gentle disposition, placid interactive style, usually heavy build horses, thicker coat and mane, good with children
What are cold blood horses most often used for? farming and hauling
examples of cold blood horses American cream, Clydesdale, Percheron
What qualities determine a warm blood horse? bred to be lighter and more athletic, while maintaining good temperament.
What are warm blood horses most often used for? riding and light work
examples of warm blood horses quarter horse, Hanoverian,
What qualities determines a hot blood horse? lighter bodies, fast hot tempered, high strung
What are hot blood horses most often used for? racing and conformation
Examples of hot blood horses Arabian, Andalusian, Thoroughbred
miniature horses can be how tall? 9.5 hands
What are the common uses of miniature horses? companion animal, service animal
A black horse is described as: black coat with black points, NO BROWN OR RED black can be shades of faded or non faded black. MAY have white markings on face and legs
A chestnut/Sorrel horse is described as: red coat with red points, color can range from dark red/brown, deep red, light red.
The term chestnut is used if the horse is what? a thoroughbred
the term Sorrel is used when the horse is what? Quarter horse
A grey horse os described as: Born a dark color, usually dilutes with age, dark skin/dark eyes, despite possible white coat
A white horse is described as: A horse that is white from birth, has pink skin, can have blue eyes, Heterozygous Ww trait, WW is considered lethal white and foals are usually aborted or stillborn
A bay horse is described as: brown body (either light or dark) with black points (all 4 legs, mane and tail) MAY have white markings
A buckskin horse is described as: tanned deer color hide, cream to bronze, black or brown points, +/- dorsal stripe
A Dun horse is described as: cream to smutty brown coat color, dirty black-smutty brown points, dorsal stripe required
A palomino horse is described as gold body (ranging from off white to deep gold) flaxen mane and tail (white to cream)
A Tobiano horse is described as: base color of varies: bay, black, brown, or red. Large white patches (white must be extending over the back)
An Overo horse is described as: base color varies: bay, black, brown, red. Small white areas on body. White does NOT extend over the back
An appaloosa horse is described as: base color varies: bay, black, brown, grey, red, red roan, blue roan, etc. Spotted. Stripped hooves, mottled skin,
A red roan horse is described as: base color or red/sorrel with white hairs mixed in
A blue roan horse is described as: base color of dark or slate grey with white hair mixed in
How are horses identified? natural and artificial markings
What are examples of natural markings? white markings, coat color, whorls (cowlicks), scars, muscle indentations (wizard or warlocks indentation)
name the 3 types of artificial markings tattoos, brands, microchips
Where are horses tattooed? inside of upper lip
What are the 4 types of facial markings? star, stripe, snip, blaze, bald
To be considered a bald facial marking the white must extend all the way to what? the eyes
which leg marking is a tiny band? coronet
Which leg marking extends the highest? stocking
Which leg marking goes up to the pastern? pastern
The leg marking described as a sock falls in between what? stocking and pastern
What are the most common areas to see whorls, cowlicks, or swirls in a horses coat? forehead, crest of neck, jugular grove
The 1st letter of a race horse's tattoo indicates what? the year the horse was foaled
Where are brands commonly placed? left or right hip, left or right shoulder, or the crest of the neck
Where are microchips placed? subcutaneous at the crest of the neck or base of the ear
What is the dental formula for a horse? I 3/3 C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3= 44
What does hind gut fermenting refer to? cellulose is digested with the help of a symbiotic bacteria
what is the approximate stomach capacity of a horse? 2-4 gallons
How long is a horses esophagus? 50-60 inches
Why can't horses vomit or regurgitate? because the esophagus can only retract in one direction
How is a horses stomach similar to humans? enzymatic digestion
How long is the small intestine of a horse? What % is this of their GI tract? 50-60ft 30%
The hind gut is made up of what? cecum and large intestine
What does the hind gut do? microbial fermentation
What is the purpose of husbandry? to maintain clean environment to promote health of animals, provide food and water to promote healing and health, decrease consumption of dirt/foreign materials while eating
What complications can arise from improper husbandry practices? nosocomial infections due to improper sanitation, entanglement of limbs in improperly secured hay nets, anorexia, colic, bloating, due to inappropriate type or delivery of food
What are the 4 main types of horse housing? pasture/paddock, pipe corral/pen, box stall w/pen, foaling stall
What is the difference between a pasture and a paddock? a paddock is smaller than a pasture
How much land should be provided for each horse? at least 1.5 acres
How tall should fencing be to contain horses? 4-6 feet tall
Which is better barbed wire or electrical fencing? electrical
How big are box stalls? at least 12 x 12
What are common types of flooring for horse stalls? concrete, rubber mats, dirt
how often should stalls be mucked out? 1-2x daily ( once being acceptable unless horse is messy
What does stall stripping refer to? removal of everything from the stall (bedding etc..) cleaning the whole stall down/disinfecting, replacing all bedding
how big are foaling stalls? 12x24
What type of bedding should be used in a foaling stall (and with foals in general) why? straw, to prevent black walnut toxicity
When should a mare be moved into a foaling stall? at least 1 month prior to parturition
What is the used to clean a stall? remove large piles of manure, sift through bedding to remove any remaining smaller bits of manure, remove wet bedding, replace bedding, clean and refill water buckets
What are the common types of bedding used with horses? straw, wood shavings, peat moss, sawdust, shredded newspaper, wood pellets
What type of straw is used as bedding? oat or wheat straw
What are the benefits of using straw bedding? less gram negative bacteria, less likely to get into wounds or under bandages, preferred for foaling mares and young foals.
What are the drawbacks of using straw bedding? naturally dusty, less absorbent, not a good choice for patients with respiratory conditions
What are the benefits of using wood shaving bedding? less dusty than straw, good cushion effect, good absorbency, horses are less likely to eat it
What are the drawbacks of using wood shaving bedding? gets into wounds and under bandages, harbors gram negative bacteria, (acute laminitis secondary to black walnut toxicity)
What equipment is needed to groom a horse? curry comb(rubber or metal),mud brush, dandy brush, soft brush, finishing brush/ clean rag or towel, mane and tail comb, hoof pick, hoof polish & moisturizer, fly spray
How is a curry comb used? what does it do? in a firm circular motion, loosens dirt and hair
What areas of the body can a curry comb be used? fleshy areas, not legs or face
What are the steps to horse grooming? curry comb, brushing, hoof cleaning, sanitation
How long do a horses hooves grow in a month? 1/4-1/2 in
How often should a horses hooves be trimmed? every 6-8 weeks
horses are ____________ herbivores monogastric
nutrient requirements vary from horse to horse depending on what? age, gestation, lactation, work, enviroment
What are the general nutritional requirements of a horse? water, energy, protein, vitamins, minerals
What is the average daily water consumption of a horse? 5-10 gallons per day
What can increase water intake? copious sweating
How can you prevent a horse from "tanking up" (drinking too much water to quickly) allow 30 minutes to cool down after vigorous work/exercise before allowing horse to drink
Where do horses get protein? hay or pasture (roughage), legumes (alfalfa/clover) grass ( orchard, timothy, bluegrass, etc...)
Where do horses get carbohydrates? corn, oats, barley, COB
Grains the are rolled, cracked or steamed are what? more easily digested
What is higher in calcium alfalfa or grass? alfalfa
are grains a good source of calcium? no they are in fact deficient in calcium
What is the appropriate calcium to phosphorus ratio for the everyday horse? 1:1
How is the amount to be fed to a horse calculated? based on body weight and body condition score
How much should the average horse be fed? maintenance is 1.5% of body weight per day
How often should horses be fed? minimum of 2x daily, however if it can be split into more that is great as horses are grazers and prefer several smaller meals
How much grain is added per hour for light activity? 0.5-1.5 #
How much grain is added per hour of moderate activity? 2-3#
How much grain is added per hour of heavy activity? >4 #
What are some nutrition concerns with working horses? fluid losses, extra calories (energy) need for growth, extra protein needed to develop and repair muscles
How do nutritional requirements of a mare in the 1st 7 months of gestation compare to the maintenance amount fed at time of breeding? the mare will eat about the same amount of food during the first 7 months of her pregnancy
How much should a broodmares food intake increase in the 9th month of pregnancy? 11% above mainetenance
how much should a broodmares food intake increase in the 10th month of pregnancy? 13% above maintenance
How much should a broodmares food intake increase in the 11th month of pregnancy? 20% above maintenance
When should a broodmares calcium and phosphorus intake be increased during pregnancy? during the 7th-8th month, and further increased in the 9th-11th months
What is the zinc/copper ratio needed during pregnancy in horses? 3:1
low levels of copper is associated with what? osteochondrosis
At what age does mother milk no longer fulfill the nutritional requirements of a growing foal? 2 months
At what age will foals begin to nibble on grains and hay? 3 weeks of age
Foals should be completely weaned by what age? 6 months
What is creep feeding? slow introduction of new foods
How much water should foals drink daily by 1 month of age? 4kg
At 1 month old how much milk is a foal drinking each day approx. 17.4kg
What are the main electrolytes lost with sweat? sodium, chloride, and potassium
When oral electrolyte supplementation is needed how should it be given? 1/2 before work, 1/2 after completion of work
the moisture content of horse foods (hay etc..) should not exceed what? Why? 15% to reduce the chance of mold growth
What causes enteroliths? high levels of mineral concentration, high alfalfa diets, no wheat bran, high cecum pH (alkaline)
What is the dental formula for horses? 2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 3/3) = 44
What is the vertebral formula for horses? C7, T18, L6, S5, Coccygeal 15-21
Created by: Adeprey4311



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