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Harmon's Middle Ages

Chapters 13 and 14

What was the chief goal of the Crusades? to recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim turks
During the later Middle Ages, where were most serfs likely to search for freedom? towns or cities
An association of people who worked at the same occupation is called what? Craft guild
Farmers produced more food, and villages had more to eat because of what system? Three-field system
In which crusade did western Christians loot Constantinople? Fourth Crusade
Which leader halted the Muslim invasion of Western Europe at the Battle of Tours? Charles Martel
A community of men who gave up all private possessions to serve God was called what? monastery
What was a lord's estate called? manor
What was the body of rules and regulations governing religious practices such as marriage? canon law
What system of government was based on the exchange of land for protection and services? feudalism
Which Carolingian leader reunited Western Europe and was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III? Charlamagne
What was the act of taking away a person's right to membership in the Church? excommunication
During the Middle Ages, what was a grant of land from a lord to a vassal called? fief
Who was most responsible for the spread of the bubonic plague to Europe? traders
What was name of the effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain? Reconquista
Whose rights did the Magna Carta originally intend to defend? English nobility
How did the Battle of Hastings change the course of English history? The Normans took control of England.
Who built an empire larger than any since Rome? Charlemagne
Over what issue did Pope Gregory VII and the German emperor Henry IV fight? secular appointment of bishops
What was an effective weapon for a pope to use against a king because it cost the king the loyalty of his subjects, who feared for their own souls? interdict
The bargain made between a lord and a vassal was that the lord would grant the vassal _________ in exchange for military service.. land
The __________ resulted in the division of Charlemagne's empire into three parts. Treaty of Verdun
One factor that led to the Vikings ceasing their raids was ______ _______ in the Viking homeland improved. farming conditions
According to the code of ______, a knight fought for his lady, his feudal lord, and his heavenly Lord. chivalry
One negative effect of the _______ that has continued to the present is the hostility between Muslims and Christians. Crusades
Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in the ____ vernacular
At stake at the Battle of _________ was whether the Normans or the Anglo-Saxons would rule England. Hastings
Why were Europeans able to begin studying ancient Greek works? Muslim and Byzantine libraries contained the writings of Greek philosophers.
Which Crusade resulted in the signing of a truce and an agreement to allow Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem? Third Crusade
Which Crusade resulted in the capture of Jerusalem by the Christians and the creation of four Crusader states? First Crusade
The style of architecture that intended to achieve greater light and height was __________ Gothic
The style of architecture in which churches had thick walls and pillars that held up a heavy roof was __________. Romanesque
What was the Church court that was used in Spain to persecute Jews and Muslims? Inquisition
Which pope called for the First Crusade? Urban II
The practice of selling positions in the Church is known as simony
Who was the English king who led the Third Crusade? Richard the Lion-hearted
The leader who brought Christianity to the Franks was Clovis
A book of rules to be used for governing monasteries was written by Benedict
Who was chiefly responsible for increasing the Church's secular role during the Middle Ages? Gregory I
What was the ethnic background of the Vikings? Germanic
Who led the Norman conquest of England? William the Conqueror
Knights most commonly traded military service for land
One action that was forbidden in the code of chivalry, but for which knights were rarely punished, was brutality to the weak
Who forced whom to sign the Magna Carta? The English nobility forced John to sign.
Who was the lowest ranking member of the clergy during the Middle Ages? priest
Emperor Henry IV's punishment for defying the pope was what? excommunication
The person who was so famous for his red beard that he was nicknamed Barbarossa was _______. Frederick I
Canon law deals with issues under the authority of the _____. Church
Baptism is an example of a _________. sacrament
In 1100, the Holy Roman Empire covered most of what is present-day ____________. Germany
Created by: harmona71