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VTT Surgical Nursing

Quiz 2

What is the goal of induction? to safely intubate the patient
How many stages of anesthesia are there? 4
Stage 1 amnesia and analgesia
Stage 2 Delirium and lack of inhibition ( excitement phase)
Stage 3 Surgical anesthesia, characterized by progressive depression of respiration, circulation, reflexes, and muscle tone
How many planes is stage 3 broken up into? 4
Stage 3 plane 1 light surgical anesthesia
Stage 3 plane 2 moderate surgical anesthesia
Stage 3 plane 3 Deep surgical anesthesia
Stage 3 plane 4 Very deep surgical anesthesia, Apnea
Stage 4 Premortem, between apnea and circulatory collapse
At what stage of anesthesia would the patients eye be in a central position? Stage 1-3 plane 1
At what stage of anesthesia would you see Nystagmus? Stage 2-3 plane 1
At what stage of anesthesia would your patients eyes be rotated ventrally?? Stage 3 plane 2-3
At what stage of anesthesia would your patients return to a central position from a ventrally rotated position? Stage 3 plane 3-4, Stage 4
At what stage of anesthesia would you be able to intubate your patient? Stage 3 plane 2
At what stage of anesthesia are most spays performed? Stage 3 plane 3
At what stage of anesthesia are most neuters performed? Stage 3 plane 2
When will your patient have a pupil response to light?? Always unless too deep
When will the patients muscle tone be good? stage 1-3 plane 1
When will the patients muscle tone be relaxed?? Stage 3 planes 2-3
When will the patients muscle tone be unresponsive? Stages 2-3 plane 4
What is the palpebral reflex? blink upon touching the lateral or medial canthus
At what stage of anesthesia is the palpebral reflex lost? stage 2-3 plane 1-2
What is the pedal reflex? Withdrawal of the limb in response to vigorous squeezing and twisting or pinching of a digit or paw pad
At what stage of anesthesia is the pedal reflex lost?? Stage 3 plane 1-3
What is the corneal reflex? a retraction of the eyeball within the orbit and/ or a blink response to stimulation of the cornea
What is the Auricular reflex? flick of the ear in response to stimulation of the ear
What is the laryngeal reflex? an immediate closure of the epiglottis and vocal cords when the larynx is touched by any object
What stage of anesthesia is the laryngeal response lost? usually lost at stage 3, may still be seen during intubation,
What species is the laryngeal reflex stronger in/ cats, pigs, and small ruminants
What is the pharyngeal/ swallowing reflex? response to food or saliva in the pharynx
What stage of anesthesia is the pharyngeal reflex lost? Stage 3 plane 1-3
Does ketamine provide analgesia?? yes
What are the side effects of ketamine?/ pain after injection, lowers the seizure threshold, increased salivation, respiratory depression, emesis, vocalization, spastic jerking movements, seizures/muscle tremors, cardiac arrest
What is the reversal agent for ketamine none
What type of drug is diazepam? Benzodiazepine
What is the reversal agent for diazepam? Flumazenil
What type of drug is ketamine? Dissociative
What are the effects of diazepam? anti-anxiety/calming, anti-convulsant, skeletal muscle relaxation,
Does diazepam provide analgesia? NO
What are the contraindication for diazepam?? inject IV slowly, use with caution in animals with hepatic or renal disease/geriatrics/coma/shock/debilitated
What type of drug is thiopental? Barbiturate
What type of barbiturate is thiopental? ultra short acting barbiturate
What is Telazol? Tiletamine and zolazopam
What type of drug is propofol? Short acting hypnotic
Does propofol provide any analgesia? no
What are the adverse effects of propofol? significant respiratory depression (especially if given too fast IV), Can cause apnea, may cause histamine release, Hypotension, seizure like signs (paddling, Opisthotonos, myoclonic twitching during induction
What does ophisthotonus mean? throw the head back, front legs become rigid
What is the reversal agent for propofol? NONE
What are the advantages of intubation? creates a patent airway, allowing efficient delivery of oxygen anesthetic gas, and medications, helps prevent waste gas exposure, prevents aspiration of blood, saliva, vomit, allows control over ventilations, reduces dead space
What are the disadvantages of intubation/?? stimulates vagus nerves ( leads to bradycardia), intubation of esophagus, laryngospasms, risk of bronchi insertion, over inflation of cuff causing pressure necrosis or tearing/ sub-Q emphysema, Hypothermia
What is the normal respiratory rate of an anesthetized dog? 8-20 bpm
What is the normal heart rate for an anesthetized dog??? 60-150bpm
What is the normal mucous membrane color for an anesthetized dog? Normally pink but varies from patient to patient
What is the normal CRT for an anesthetized dog? <1 sec
What color is an oxygen tank? green
What color is a nitrous oxide tank??? blue
What is the color of a nitrogen tank? Black
What color is a carbon dioxide tank? Grey
What are the 2 sizes tanks come in?? Size H and size E
What is the difference between an H tank and an E tank? An H tank is large and usually attached to a central system, E tanks are smaller and affixed to the machine
What is the Psi of a full tank? 2200
What is the psi at the regulator? 50 psi
What is the psi at the flow meter? 15 psi
What is the criteria for use of a non-rebreather system? less than 7kg or 15 lbs.
How is tidal volume calculated? 10ml/kg
How do you calculate the size of your reservoir bag you need to use? tidal volume multiplied by 5 or 6
What is the biggest difference between a precision and non-precision vaporizer? The ability to know how much anesthetic gas the patient is receiving
How can you prevent atelectasis? sighing or "bagging" your patient every 5 mins while under anesthesia
What is atelectasis? collapsed alveoli
What is the goal of asepsis?? To keep as much bacteria out of and away from the patients surgical incision, in order to avoid contaminating or infecting the otherwise healthy (hopefully) animal
define sterile free from all bacteria or other living microorganisms; totally clean
Aseptic free from contamination caused by harmful bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms
What is the difference between sterile and aseptic?? Only inanimate objects can be sterilized (either by way of steam, chemical, etc...) Aseptic is the closest a living thing can become to sterile by means of scrubbing with a bactericide/virucidal agents, properly donning sterile gown and gloves
When "scrubbing in" What is the standard length of time and procedure? scrub from hand to hand (starting on one side of the hand working your way over, remove any debris from under the nails), then arm to arm, drying the same,
What is the difference between the duties of a sterile scrub nurse and a non-sterile tech? "scrub tech" implies that you are surgically scrubbed and in sterile gown and gloves, a scrub tech can then assist the surgeon in any way needed including touching any part of the sterile field. A non-sterile tech must never invade the sterile field
What are the different types of needles used for suturing? tapered and cutting
What are taper needles used for??? internal/visceral suture such as bowl, bladder, etc.. delicate tissue
What are cutting needles used for?? external sutures
What type of needle leaves a pyramid shaped hole?? cutting
What type of needle leaves and upside down pyramid shaped hole? reverse cutting
What type of needle leave a circular/round hole? taper
How is suture material characterized? tensile strength, memory, flexibility, absorbability, structure, knot security, origin of material, sizing, color, packaging
What is monofilament suture? suture made up of 1 single fiber
What is multifilament suture? Suture made up of multiple fibers braided together to make one line of suture material
What is the brand name for nylon? Ethilon, Dermalon
Is nylon absorbable? NO
What is the brand name for polyester? Ethibond
is polyester absorbable? NO
What is the brand name for Polyglactin 910? Vicryl
Is Vicryl absorbable? yes 50-70 days
What is the brand name for polyglycolic acid? Dexon
is Dexon absorbable? YES 120 days
What is the brand name for polypropylene? Surgilene, Prolene
Is Surgilene, Prolene absorbable? NO
What is the brand name for polidioxanone? PDS
Is PDS absorbable? Yes, 180 days
What is the brand name for silk? Silk
Is silk absorbable? NO
What is the brand name for chromic gut? Chromic gut
Is chromic gut absorbable? YES 60 days
in regards to suture what does chromic mean? treated with acid salts to delay absorption time
In regards to suture what does capillary mean? The ability of the suture to draw in liquid
In regards to suture, what is memory? The ability of the suture to retain the shape it was in the package
when talking able suture sizes, the larger the number the ________ the suture is. smaller
When talking about suture needles, the lower the number the ________ the needle is? larger
What are the 2 types of suture patterns? continuous and interrupted
What are the advantages of interrupted patterns? if 1 suture breaks the rest are still secure, minimizes the travel of bacteria,
What are the disadvantages of interrupted? more operator time, more suture material used, more knots
What are the advantages of continuous suture patterns? minimal use of suture material and knots, less operator time, strong
What are the disadvantages of continuous suture? If the line breaks the whole suture is broken, bacteria can travel up the entire length of the suture,
Name 2 continuous patterns simple continuous, ford interlocking blanket stitch
Name 4 interrupted suture patterns simple interrupted, vertical mattress, horizontal mattress, cross mattress/ cruciate
What are the complications of suturing?? Dehiscence,(may be due to tension) infection, suture reaction
What color is an isoflurane gas cylinder? purple
What color is a sevoflurane gas cylinder? yellow
What color is a desflurane gas cylinder? blue
When should you change the Co2 granules?? When they become come crumbly, they may or may not retain a purple color
When should oxygen tanks be changed?? 100-200 Psi
What is the optimal flow rate for a patient less than 7kg ? 30 mL/kg/min
What is the optimal flow rate for a patient more than 7kg? 200mL/kg/min never less than 1L
How is active scavenging different than passive scavenging? active uses suction from a vacuum pump to draw gas into the scavenger. Passive discharges waste gasses to the outside through a hole in the canister
What are the disadvantages of active scavenging systems? more expensive, more maintenance involved, must remember to turn it on!!!
Hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide int eh blood stream often caused by inadequate respiration
What are the risks associated with under inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff patient may be too light, or even wake despite high anesthetic gas levels, anesthetic gas may be expelled into the room,
What are the three parts of induction/ preparation of the patient, preparation of supplies, restrain the patient and administer the anesthetic agent ( begin monitoring immediately)
Created by: Adeprey4311



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