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VTT dentistry week 3

Home Care & Extractions

QuestionAnswer
Plaque Biofilm (microorganisms) composed of bacteria by-products, saliva, oral debris and inflamed epithelial cells
Tartar calculus, plaque turns into calculus after absorbing calcium from the saliva , this calcifies thus the term calculus
How/why could/would a patient develop periodontal disease? Age, species, breed, genetics, diet, chewing/grooming habits, frequency of professional care, bacterial flora of oral cavity, patients health status, home care, orthodontic occlusion
What are the initial signs of periodontal disease? Halitosis, gingival bleeding, bloody saliva/drool, not eating well or eating to one side, blood on toys, depressed/sitting over food bowl
What is a pocket? diseased tissue, tartar invades the gingival sulcus causing separation of the tooth from the gum
What is the normal sulcus depth for a dog? 1-3mm
What is the normal sulcus depth for a cat? 0.5-1mm
Define periodontal disease Plaque induced inflammatory lesions that affect the periodontium
What is the most common oral disease in cats and dogs? periodontal disease
What is the primary cause of gingivitis and periodontitis? Accumulation of plaque on the tooth's surfaces and localizes there, calculus is secondary factor
The degree of periodontal disease in the mouth is staged based on what??? The worst tooth in the mouth (despite how healthy the rest of the teeth appear)
Healthy gingiva vital tissue, bright pink with smooth/even gingiva from tooth to tooth (topography)
define topography
Is gingivitis reversible?? yes
is periodontitis reversible? NO
Stage 1 gingivitis occurs after........ 2-3 days of plaque accumulation
redness of gingiva, mild amount of plaque, possible gingival bleeding upon probing, mild to no radiographic change, changes seen from healthy gingiva Stage 1 periodontal disease "Early gingivitis"
increase inflammation of gingiva, plaque/calculus, NO root exposure YET, slightly painful, mild gingival bleeding, irregular topography, bubble effect of gingival 2-3mm pockets Stage 2 periodontal disease "early periodontitis"
moderate loss of bone attachment, moderate pocket formation (4-5mm) furcation exposure, gingival recession/abnormal topography, gingival bleeds easily, radiographs indicate bone loss at alveolar crest Stage 3 periodontal disease "moderate periodontitis"
visible breaking down of periodontal tissues, severe inflammation, painful, gingiva bleeds readily, deep abnormal pocket formation, root exposure, bone loss, purulent discharge, periapical bone loss Stage 4 periodontal disease "advanced periodontitis"
Periodontal disease is usually staged on 1-4 scale.... What would a stage 5 indicate? SEVERE periodontal disease
less than 1mm of furcation exposure is classified as? class 1
Class 2 furcation exposure indicates what? more than 1mm of furcation is exposed, but cannot pass through completely
Class 3 furcation exposure indicates what/ complete furcation exposure, you can pass your probe through one side to the other
Where is the furcation located?? the area where the tooth roots meet the crown
Define G-I-N-G-I-V-I-T-I-S Inflammation of the gingival tissue
What types of toys and treats are appropriate? you should be able to make an indent in the surface of the toy/chew with your fingernail, it should have some give, bend break etc...
What is the mechanical removal of plaque? using a brush/gauze square etc..
What is the chemical removal of plaque? removing the plaque using an agent such as dentrifice, chlorhex rinse etc...
What does C.E.T stand for? canine enzymatic toothpaste
What are some products made by C.E.T? C.E.T dentrifice, C.E.T Hextra dental chews (in regular and petite size, C.E.T veggiedent chews, C.E.T water additive and chlorhexadine 012%rinse
What is the VOHC Veterinary Oral Health Council
What does the VOHC do? established to set protocols pertaining to veterinary oral health products, If a product has the VOHC stamp of approval it means they have been testes and proven effective
What is dentrifice? toothpaste
How does chlorhexadine fight/inhibit the growth of plaque? bactericidal and viralcidal. kills bacteria and viruses within the oral cavity, bind to the acquired pellicle for 24hrs inhibiting the growth of plaque
What is maxiguard? Zinc Ascorbate
How /why is zinc used? Zinc promotes healing, by stimulating collagen production... Maxiguard is used by applying a pea sized drop of the gel formula to each side of the mouth (of a cat) you would use slightly more for larger dogs and even more for large animals such as horses
How does fluoride benefit the dental patient? Fluoride adheres to oral tissues and slowly releases, desensitizes teeth, strengthens enamel
exodontics The dental specialty that deals with the extraction of the teeth
When are extractions necessary?? When a tooth cannot be salvaged (either due to damage, clients inability to provide homecare, or a financial decision)
Who can do simple extractions?? LVT
Who can do surgical extractions?? in WA the LVT can, according to the AVDC only a DVM can do surgical extractions
What is the AVDC? American Veterinary Dentistry College
What instruments are used for extractions?? scalpel handle/blade, small needle holder/scissors, thumb forceps (brown-Adson/ rat tooth),periodontal elevators, extraction forceps, root tip pick, cross-cut bur, irrigation solution, bone implant material
What type of suture do you want to use when performing extractions??? absorbable suture ex chromic gut (vicryl??)
What is the recommended technique for extractions? periodontal ligament stretch
How is a single rooted tooth extracted?? by using elevator, working around the circumference of the tooth to loosen/detach the periodontal ligament
How is a multi-rooted tooth extracted?? by splitting the tooth at the furcation using a high speed bur, then proceeding as if it were a single root tooth
Vertical extraction Elevator parallel to root, slow & steady pressure on each side 5-15 sec
Horizontal extraction Elevator perpendicular to crown and tooth root, careful not to luxate the tooth
Single rooted teeth in canines incisors, canines, first premolars105,205,305,405. mandibular molars 311, 411
Single root teeth in felines incisors, canines, maxillary premolars 106, 206
What size blade is used to make mucosal gum flap? 11
premolar extractions All except the first (105, 205, 305, 405) premolars, AND 108. 208 should be split between the furcation to the cusp
T- shaped cut used for which teeth? maxillary first and second molars, 109, 110, 209, 210
Created by: Adeprey4311