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VTT Pharmacology 3

CNS drugs

QuestionAnswer
Tranquilizer A drug which induces a state of calm (Aware DON'T CARE)
Sedative A drug that induces CNS depressions and drowsiness
Which phenothiazine drugs are commonly used in veterinary practice? Acepromazine and Chlorpromazine
What adverse reaction of acepromazine is important to remember when dosing horses?? penile prolapse paraphemosis
What is the concentration of injectable acepromazine 10mg/ml
What is the maximum parenteral dose of acepromazine for dogs? 3mg
What is the maximum parenteral dose of acepromazine for cats? 1mg
What causes paradoxical aggression and CNS excitement? acepromazine
Is acepromazine a controlled substance? no
What drug is light sensitive and absorbs into plastic Diazepam
What is the concentration of injectable diazepam? 5mg/ml
What ratio do you use for mixing diazepam with ketamine? 1:1 equal parts diazepam and ketamine
Is diazepam readily absorbed when administered IM or SQ? NO
Why is diazepam NOT readily absorbed when administered IM or SQ? It is lipophilic, meaning it absorbs well in fats/phospholipids NOT in water or aqueous regions
What are common uses for acepromazine? pre-anesthetic, sedative for travelling, fireworks, thunderstorms
What are the adverse effects of acepromazine? Hypotension, penile prolapse in horses, prolapse of the nictitans (3rd eyelid)
Can acepromazine be given IM Yes, but be aware that it burns, this will not be taken well by your patients
In what breeds are phenothiazine drugs contraindicated? giant breeds and sight hounds may be extremely sensitive, terrier breeds may be somewhat resistant to it.
Does acepromazine have any analgesic properties NO
Which benzodiazepine drug is well absorbed when administered IM or SQ? Midazolam
Zolazopam is only found in what combination drug?? Telazol
What are common Alpha-2 -agonist drugs used in the veterinary field? xylazine, metetomidine, dexmetetomidine,detomidine
Do phenothiazine drugs lower the seizure threshold? yes
Boxers are reported to have breed related sensitivity to acepromazine, how does this present? exaggerated hypotensive response leading to possible cardiovascular collapse and death
What drugs are considered your "TRUE" tranquilizers?? benzodiazepines
Do benzodiazepine drugs have analgesic properties? NO
What are the common uses for benzodiazepine drugs?? anti-convulsant, anti-anxiety/calming, skeletal muscle relaxation
What is the MOA of benzodiazepine drugs? The limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic levels of the CNS are depressed
Do benzodiazepines have a reversal agent? yes
What is the reversal agent for benzodiazepine drugs? Flumazenil
What drug can be used an appetite stimulant in cats? Diazepam
What has been linked to cats receiving oral diazepam for several days?? liver failure
under what circumstances might diazepam cause CNS excitement in a dog? When given alone or too rapidly IV
Ataxia uncoordinated gait
What is the MOA of Alpha-2 agonists? they stimulate the aplpha-3 receptors in the CNS causing a decrease in the level of norepinephrine
What are the effects of alpha 2 agonists?? sedation, muscle relaxation, analgesia, emesis, depress thermoregulatory mechanisms, peripheral vasoconstriction (may see pale MM & increased CRT), bradycardia
Are horse and cattle dosages of xylazine the same? Why or why not? NO, cattle are 10x more sensitive to xylazine than horses, therefore a cows dose of xylazine would be 1/10 of that of a horse
What is the emetic of choice for cats? Xylazine
What are the 2 reversal agents for Detomidine? Atipamizole.& Tolazoline
What alpha-2 agonist is used in horses and has a longer duration than xylazine? detomidine
What is the reversal agent for xylazine yohimbine
What is the reversal agent for dexmetetomidine? Atipamizole
How much Atipamizole would you use to reverse dexmetetomidine? EQUAL volume
How are barbiturates classified? long-acting, short-acting, ultra short-acting
Are barbiturates controlled substances? yes
Human precaution with Alpha 2 agonists? will absorb through MM, conjunctiva, and cuts causing CNS and cardiovascular effects
What happens with perivascular injection of a barbiturate? inflammation, sloughing of the skin
Redistribution after administration the drug quickly absorbs into the most vascular tissues ex brain, liver, kidneys, at the same time the less vascular tissues (ex fat and skeletal muscle) are absorbing the drug just at a slower rate, by the time the drug has absorbed
What is phenobarbital used for? long term anti-convulsant therapy of idiopathic epilepsy
Why is blood level monitoring so important with phenobarbital? Long term blood level monitoring is important to be sure the patient is not being under or overdosed with the phenobarbital
What is one long term effect of phenobarbital therapy? long term use can cause liver failure especially at higher doses
How is thiobarbital classified/ ultra short acting barbiturate
How is pentobarbital classified// short acting barbiturate
What drug would be used for seizures caused by toxins.? pentobarbital
What is the active ingredient in euthanasia solutions? pentobarbital
How does pentobarbital cause death? severely depresses the medullary respiratory and vasomotor centers in high doses
How are euthanasia solutions classified by the DEA Class/schedule 3
Why are other ingredients added to pentobarbital in euthanasia solutions? for cardiovascular depression
Should you use euthanasia solutions in food animals (for humans or animals)? NO
What are the 4 parts of the pain pathway transduction, transmission, modulation, conscious perception
How can we block pain off at transduction? local anesthetic
How can we block pain at transduction? modulated w/ NMDA receptor antagonists, opioids
How can we block pain from general perception?? general anesthesia
NMDA N-methyl-D- aspartates
Spinal cord wind up process of increasing sensitivity of the spinal cord to pain impulses
How can we avoid spinal cord wind up? by pre-medicating with analgesics
catalepsis muscle rigidity
Is ketamine a controlled substance? yes class 3
Does ketamine have any analgesic properties? good somatic(peripheral) No visceral analgesia.
When is ketamine contraindicated? in animals with suspected head trauma or elevated CSF as well as in patients with INCREASED intraocular pressure(glaucoma) or when open globe injuries are present, as ketamine will further increase the IOP
What is the concentration of injectable ketamine?? 100mg/ml
What is kitty magic? an alpha 2 agonist, a dissociative and an opioid
for a 5kg patient which drugs and in what volumes would you make kitty magic?? dexmetetomidine 0.2cc, ketamine 0.2cc, buprenorphine 0.2cc
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Created by: Adeprey4311