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VTT Pharmacology 2

Nervous system anatomy and ANS Drugs

Homeostasis ]constant internal environment
What does the nervous system do? The body's primary communication and control center, Functions in harmony with the endocrine system (allows adaptations to the bodies external environment)
What are the 3 functions of the nervous system? Sensory, Integrative (analysis), and motor (action)
Describe sensory nerve function senses changes in the environment and within the body
Describe Integrative nerve function interprets the information detected by sensory nerves
Describe motor nerve function Responds to information by bringing out an appropriate response
What is the difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?? The nervous system send messages rapidly along its network of fibers with the help of ion exchange. The endocrine system responds more slowly by releasing hormones in the blood stream to target organs/tissues
how does the nervous system control the endocrine system? The nervous system exerts control over the endocrine by way of the hypothalamus influencing the pituitary gland
What are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system? 1.Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) 2. Peripheral nervous system (everything else)
What is the function of the CNS? CNS is the bodies control center, all sensory information must be relayed to the CNS before it can be interpreted and acted upom
What is the function of the PNS? Nerve processes that connect the CNS with glands, muscles and receptors in the body
Pharmacokinetics The study of how a drug moves into, through, and out of the body
Pharmacodynamics The study of how a drug produces effects on the body
What is the purpose of the loading dose? To raise the drug concentration in the animals body to a therapeutic level in a short amount of time
Parenteral beyond, beside or apart from the intestines. Drugs given by injection are considered to be parenteraly administered
Lipophilic "fat loving" a lipophilic drug is one that can readily dissolve in fats or oils. Lipophilic drugs can pass through a cell membrane. Lipophilic drug molecules tend to be non-polarized and non-ionized
What is a cell membrane primarily made up of?? phospholipids
Hydrophilic "Water loving" dissolves readily in water, has a difficult time passing through the cell membrane by passive diffusion. Hydrophilic drugs are either polarized (contains charges at the ends of the molecules) or Ionized (positive or net negative charge)
Bioavailability The degree to which an administered drug is absorbed. The letter F is sometime used to represent bioavailability
Hepatic portal system Conducts blood from the intestines to the liver
What is the purpose of the hepatic portal system? To allow the liver to remove potential toxins and other substances before they reach systemic circulation
First- pass effect The phenomenon by which the liver removes so much of the drug that little of it reaches systemic circulation
Xenobiotic a foreign substance-a chemical compound (as a drug, pesticide or carcinogen) that is foreign to a living organism
Bioavailability The degree to which an administered drug is absorbed. Sometimes represented by the letter F
F-1 means that 100% of the administered drug makes it to systemic circulation, therefore it is 100% bioavailable
What is the hepatic portal system conducts blood from the intestines to the liver
What is the of the hepatic portal system? to allow the liver to remove any potential toxins and other substances before they reach systemic circulation
first pass effect The phenomenon in which the liver removes so much of the drug that little of it reaches systemic circulation
xenobiotic a foreign substance- a chemical compound (drug, pesticide, or carcinogen) the is foreign to a living organism
What makes the blood brain barrier? continuous capillary walls (no fenestrations) as well as astrocytes and glial cells which surround the capillaries, providing extra membrane barriers through which drugs must pass from the blood to the brain
What is the function of the blood brain barrier? to control passage of substances ( drugs, toxins etc...) from the bloodstream into the central nervous system
What is the downside of the BBB?? It also prevents distribution of drugs which are not lipophilic
Name 2 other areas of the body that have something similar to the BBB? The prostate gland and the globe of the eye
Is the placenta a good protective barrier for the fetus against drugs? No, the capillaries of the placenta have fenestration which allow most drugs to pass easily for maternal to fetal circulation. Some drugs that gain access to the fetus can cause developmental disruptions, spontaneous abortion, or fetal malformation
What is the significance of protein bound drugs? The chemical properties of some drugs cause a portion of the drug to bind to proteins in the blood. Due to the large size of the proteins, these drugs tend to remain in systemic circulation because the cannot fit through capillary fenestrations
What is the significance of the free form drug? The drug in free form is small enough to fit through the capillary fenestration, therefore they distribute more easily
Agonist produces a cellular effect and has an intrinsic activity
Antagonist blockers or dampens agonist mediated responses rather than provoking a biological response itself, upon binding with a receptor
Affinity Attraction, or the tendency of a molecule to associate with another. The affinity of a drug is its ability to bind with its biological target (receptor,enzyme,transport system, etc..)
Partial agonist Drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor but only have partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist
Chelator types of compounds used as drugs that physically combine with ions (calcium, magnesium, etc..) or other specific compounds in the environment to produce their effect
Biotransformation a.k.a drug metabolism, describes the alteration of drugs by enzymes & chemical reactions in the body before they are eliminated. ( usually a 2-step process)
prodrug drug which requires biotransformation to become active
What is active secretion? A process in which some drug molecules are actively transferred from the peritubular capillaries to the urine
What is the advantage of this? because molecules are transferred using an active transport mechanism, the final drug concentration of the urine does not depend on the concentration gradient from blood to urine
half life of elimination The rate at which the drug leaves the body, A time value that describes how long the drug concentration (usually measure int he blood) takes to decrease by 50%
What is drug withdrawal time The time (usually expressed in days) after a drug administration during which the animal cannot be sent to market for slaughter and eggs and milk must be discarded
What maintains homeostasis within the body? the nervous system
What are the 3 functions of the nervous system/ sensory, integrative, motor
sensory nerve function senses changes in the environment as well as within the body
integrative nerve function? interprets information collect by the sensory function
motor nerve function? responds to the interpretation made by the integrative function by bringing about an action
What is the difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system? The nervous system sends messages rapidly along its network of fibers with the help of ion exchange, the endocrine system responds more slowly by releasing hormones into the blood stream to target tissues/organs
What are the 2 main division of the nervous system? CNS- Central nervous system, PNS- Peripheral nervous system
What makes up the CNS? Brain and spinal cord
What is the function of the CNS? CONTROL CENTER all sensory info must be relayed tp the CNS before it can be interpreted and acted upon
What is the function pf the PNS? nerve processes that connect the CNS with the glands, muscles, and receptors in the body
cerebral cortex interprets sensory input, memory, learning
Thalamus relays sensory data from the cerebellum, spinal cord and brain stem TO the cerebral cortex, also pain perception
Medulla Oblongata Carries sensory and motor input between the brain and SC also controls vital function, vomiting, coughing, swallowing, BP, body temperature, breathing and hunger
Hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland
Reticular formation contains the reticular activating system which is responsible for sleeping, waking and consciousness
Dendrite Receives messages and carries them toward the nerve cell body
Synaptic end bulb Pass neurotransmitters (message) into the gap/junction (synapse)
Axon carries messages away from the body of the nerve cell
How many pairs of cranial nerves? 12
Spinal nerves connect the spinal cord to structures such as organs, skin, or skeletal muscle
Cranial Nerves attach to under surface of the brain, conduct impulses between the brain and structures in the head, neck and thorax
What are the 2 portions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) Afferent and Efferent
Afferent nerve cells that carry info from receptors in the periphery of the body to the CNS ****SENSORY****
Efferent Nerve cells that carry impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands ****MOTOR*******
What are the 2 branches of the PNS? Somatic and Autonomic
Somatic nervous system under voluntary control, stimulates skeletal muscle fibers through motor nerves
Autonomic nervous system involuntary functions, efferent (motor) nerves to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
What are the 2 divisions of the AUTONOMIC nervous system? Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
What neurotransmitter does the adrenal cortex produce? adrenalin
What 3 areas of the body have sympathetic innervation only? adrenal medulla, sweat glands, hair follicles
Miosis pupil constriction
Mydriasis pupil dilation
Autonomic nervous system controls visceral functions such as??? Gi Motility, rate and force of heart beat, glandular secretion, pupil size
Parasympathetic cholinergic- rest and repose response
sympathetic adrenergic - fight or flight response
How many types of neurons does the autonomic nervous system have? 2
How many types neurons does the somatic nervous system have?? 1
axon of the 1st ANS neurons are? pre-ganglionic or pre-synaptic neurons
axon of the 2nd ANS neuron are? post-ganglionic or post synaptic neurons
Neurotransmitters "chemical bridge" Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, GABA- Gamma aminobutryic acid
How do CNS drugs act? by mimicking or blocking the effect of neurotransmitters
The parasympathetic nervous system is affected by what type of drugs? cholinergic drugs
Primary neurotransmitters at sympathetic (adrenergic)sites epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Primary neurotransmitters at sympathetic (muscarinic) sites? Acetylcholine
Primary neurotransmitters at parasympathetic (cholinergic) sites? Acetylcholine
Alpha causes excitation or increased activity of their target organ (except the gi tract)
Alpha are primarily activated by what neurotransmitter? Norepinephrine
Alpha 1 receptors arterioles/veins-constriction, glands-decreases secretions, eye-pupil dilation, intestine-decrease motility, urinary bladder-bladder sphincter constriction
Alpha 2 receptors skeletal muscle - constriction, Beta-islet cells of the pancreas-decrease secretion of insulin
Beta causes relaxation or decreased activity of their target organ ( EXCEPT HEART MUSCLE)
Beta are primarily activated by what neurotransmitter? Epinephrine
Beta 1 receptors Heart- increased heart rate, contractility, conduction, velocity
Beta 2 receptors Arterioles/veins (except in skin and brains)- vasodilation
Beta 2 agonists are used for what condition? Asthma (cause bronchodilaton)
DOPAMINERGIC receptors Vasodilation of vessels in kidneys, heart and GI tract
Anuric kidneys not producing urine
Oliguria scanty urine being produced by kidneys
Parasympathetic (cholinergic) receptors Nicotinic, Muscarinic
Drugs which mimic the natural neurotransmitters do so by? binding tot he receptor sites themselves,(direct) OR stimulating the release of neurotransmitter from the end bulb but do not bind to the receptors themselves (indirect) OR inhibit the breakdown of the neurotransmitter(indirect)
Drugs that inhibit or block the natural neurotransmitter do so by? binding to the receptor site themselves, thus not allowing the neurotransmitter to bind
Metoclopramide controls vomiting, increases peristalsis (not used in GI obstruction
organophosphate toxicity is reversed using what atropine (anticholinergic drugs)
how is Atropine used for eye exam? Dilates pupils, decrease cilliary spasms therefore reducing pain
Pralidoxime reactivate aceytlcholinesterase to treat organophosphate toxicity
What type of drug can be used to prolong the effects of local anesthetics? sympathomimetic drugs such as epinephrine
vasopresser raises blood pressure (Norepinephrine)
Sympathomimetic drugs dopamine,ephedrine,terbutaline, albuterol, xylazine, Dexmetotomidine
True sedative? Xylazine
What sympathomimetic drug can be used to increase renal perfusion? Dopamine
Phenylpropanalomine used to treat incontinence in female dogs who develop hormone responsive incontinence post OVH
Acepromazine decreases the seizure threshold
reversal for dexmetotomidine atipamizole (equal volume)
Propanolol used to improve cardiac performance in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Created by: Adeprey4311



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