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VT - The Cell

Biology Study of life.
Cell Smallest and most basic unit of life.
Population Individuals of the same species.
Community The populations of a certain area form a community.
Ecosystem Interaction of communities with the environment.
Biosphere A thin layer over the Earth's surface. It includes the land, sea, and air, and all the organisms on earth.
Taxonomy This classifies organisms into groups, according to the way in which they're related to each other. This ranges from species to domain.
Domain Archaea Made up of prokaryotic, unicellular organisms that live in extreme habitats like the deep ocean steam vents.
Domain Bacteria Consists of prokaryotic, unicellular, bacteria. They live in a wide variety of environments and have a wide range of adaptations.
Domain Eukarya has how many kingdoms? Four - Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Kingdom Protista The simplest of the eukaryotes. Protistans can be unicellular, multicelled, or colonial (live in colonies). They are not bacteria.
Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic, multicelled organisms that break down dead organic material which keeps nutrients moving through the ecosystem.
Kingdom Plantae A multicellular organism that produces food through photosynthesis.
Kingdom Animalia Does not contain the prokaryotes or the protists. All members are multicellular, and all are heterotrophs (that is, they rely directly or indirectly on other organisms for their nourishment). Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity.
Eukaryotic Consists of all non-bacterial organisms. They also have a nucleus which stores DNA.
Homeostasis All chemical reactions are kept in balance.
Experimental group The group that is manipulated during the study.
Control group The reference group, it goes untouched during the study.
Nucleus The center of an atom. It contains protons and neutrons.
Protons The nucleus contains protons which are positively charged particles.
Neutrons The nucleus contains protons which are negatively charged particles.
Electrons Balances the positive charges of nuclear protons (they are lightly negative in charge).
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Matter Takes up space, has mass, and is composed of elements.
Element An atom that is distinguished by it's atomic number.
Molecule A group of atoms bonded to each other.
Compound If a molecule has more than one type of element present.
Ionic bond Positive and negative ions that are attracted to each other.
Covalent bond When two atoms share electrons.
Octet rule Atoms react with one another in order to have a completed outer shell with eight electrons.
Polar covalent bond The unequal sharing of electrons in a molecule.
Nonpolar covalent bond The sharing of electrons may be equal between the two atoms.
Hydrogen bond Polar molecules are attracted to one another.
Neutral pH 7 (normal pH of our human blood is 7.4)
Acid 6 or below (to 0) Has high hydrogen concentration
Base Anything that rates a 7 or higher Hydrogen concentration is low
Tissue Similar cells that form together.
Organs Similar tissues that form together.
Photosynthesis Chemical reactions that use solar energy to form a chemical reaction.
Unicellular organisms reproduce by? Cell division
Multicellular organisms reproduce by? Sexual reproduction
Organic chemistry The chemistry of the living world.
Inorganic chemistry The chemistry of the nonliving world.
Adaptions Modifications that make a particular type of organism (i.e. species) suited to its way of life.
Scientific Method - Observe - Form hypothesis - Experiment - Research conclusion - Form a theory
Atoms are made of? Tiny particles (neutrons, protons, and electrons).
Chemical reaction When molecules or compounds are chemically changed.
Carbohydrates Are used by living organisms as a source of energy. These are either single or double sugar molecules bonded together.
Lipids Insoluble in liquid. (Fats and oils)
Monosaccharides Carbohydrates with a single sugar molecule.
Disaccharide Contains two monosaccharides bonded together.
Polysaccharides Polymers of monosaccharides.
Cellulose The most abundant polysaccharide on earth. It makes up the cell walls of plants.
Chitin A polysaccharide that makes up the shells of crabs, lobsters, and insects.
Phospholipids Cell membranes.
Solvent Dissolves in water
Hydrophilic Molecules that attract water.
Hydrophobic Molecules that don't attract water.
Where is the Prokaryotic cell's genetic material located? In the nucleotide
Prokaryotic They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells and were among the first organisms on earth. They can be found in water, soil, and air.
Bacteria A type of prokaryotic cell. Some are harmful and some are beneficial.
Ribosomes Tiny particles that synthesize the proteins needed by the cell.
Lysosomes Golgi vesicles which contain proteins that digest molecules or structures in a cell.
Apoptosis Programmed cell death (lysosomes participate in this).
Mitochondria "The ""powerhouses"" of a cell. Each one has a double membrane. They also produce a lot of ATP. "
Golgi body Modify polypeptide chains into mature proteins before shipping them out to specific locations in the cell.
Nuclear envelope A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and protects the DNA within it.
Adhesion junctions They connect the cells in organs such as the heart, stomach, and bladder. They are connected by intercellular filaments.
Tight junctions Connect cells like zippers. Kidney cells use tight junctions.
Gap junctions Cells communicate across the gaps. Smooth muscles in the body use gap junctions.
Energy The capacity to do work.
Potential energy Stored energy
Kinetic energy Energy of motion
The first law of energy is? Energy can't be created or destroyed, it can only change from one form to another.
The second law of energy is? Energy can't change from one form to another without a loss of usable energy. Most energy lost during this process is heat. Every energy transformation leads to disorder.
Entropy A degree of disorder or disorganization.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) The main molecule of stored energy by cells. It is a nucleotide, a kind of molecule that serves as a monomer in DNA and RNA. It contains the sugar ribose, the nitrogen-containing base adenine, and three phosphate groups.
Where is the energy of ATP stored? Phosphate groups.
Coupled reactions Take place when an energy-releasing reaction occurs along with an energy-requiring reaction.
Metabolic pahtways A chain/series of linked reactions.
Substrates Reactants; chemicals that enter the metabolic pathway.
Enzymes Proteins that speed up the rate of metabolic reaction. They don't cause reactions to occur - they just make them occur faster than normal.
Passive Transport Requires no energy on the part of the cell.
Simple diffusion A type of Passive Transport - Occurs when a solute moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
Osmosis Another type of Passive Transport - water molecules diffuse across a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of weaker concentration.
Isotonic Cells don't change because the concentration of water on both sides of the membrane is the same.
Hypotonic Cells gain water because the concentration of water is higher outside the cell and the water rushes in.
Hypertonic Cells lose water because the concentration of water is lower outside of the cell and water comes out.
Active Transport Cells require energy. Molecules move against the concentration gradient.
Pumps Proteins involved in active transport.
Bulk Transport Macromolecules are too large to move with membrane proteins and must be transported across membranes called vesicles.
Exocytosis The transport of macromolecules out of a cell in a vesicle.
Endocytosis The transport of macromolecules in to a cell in a vesicle.
Photosynthesis Transforms solar energy into the chemical energy of carbohydrates.
Stomata Openings on leaves where carbon dioxide enters.
Chloroplast The site of photosynthesis where the carbon dioxide and water diffuse.
Chlorophyll Molecules that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect the rest. Absorbs violet, red and blue wavelengths of visible light and reflect green light. This is why plants look green.
Carotenoids Plant pigments that absorb blue-violet and blue-green wavelengths and reflect red, orange, and yellow. These pigments give fall leaves their dramatic color.
ATP molecules that provide energy to eukaryotic cells are produced during? Cellular respiration
Oxidation Removing hydrogen atoms from glucose.
Created by: tristanichole



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