Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

AP World Chapter 19

AP World History Summerville High School

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile monarchs of Christian kingdoms; their marriage created the kingdom of Spain; initiated exploration of the New World.
Hispaniola first island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; first settled by Columbus on his second voyage.
encomienda grant of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Latin America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
encomendero the holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay tribute or provide labor; responsible for their integration into the church.
Bartolomé de las Casas Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of Native American population, opposed forced labor, and advocated Indian rights.
Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico in 1519; defeated Aztec empire and established Spanish colonial rule.
Moctezuma II last independent Aztec ruler; killed during Cortés’s conquest.
Mexico City capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Tenochtitlan.
New Spain Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica in territories once part of Aztec imperial system.
Francisco Vácquez de Coronado led Spanish expedition into the southwestern United States in search of gold.
Pedro de Valdivia Spanish conqueror of Araucanian Indians of Chile; established city of Santiago in 1541.
mita forced labor system replacing Indian slaves and encomienda workers; used to mobilize labor for mines and other projects.
Potosí largest New World silver mine; located in Bolivia.
Huancavelica greatest mercury deposit in South America; used in American silver production.
haciendas rural agricultural and herding estates; produced goods for consumers in America; basis for wealth and power of the local aristocracy.
consulado merchant guild of Seville with a virtual monopoly over goods shipped to Spanish America; handled much of the silver shipped in return.
galleons large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis of convoy system used for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Tordesillas concluded in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession; in the New World, Brazil went to Portugal and the rest to Spain.
letrados university-trained lawyers from Spain; basic personnel of the Spanish colonial bureaucratic system.
Recopilación body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish New World possessions; bases of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies Spanish government body that issued all laws and advised king on all issues dealing with the New World colonies.
viceroyalties major divisions of Spanish New World colonies headed by direct representatives of the king; one based in Lima, the other in Mexico City.
viceroys senior government officials in Spanish America; ruled as direct representatives of the king over the principal administrative units or viceroyalties.
audiencia royal courts of appeals established in Spanish New World colonies; staffed by professional magistrates who made and applied laws.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 17th-century author, poet, and musician of New Spain; gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Pedro Alvares Cabral Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; landed in Brazil in 1500.
captaincies areas along the Brazilian coast granted to Portuguese nobles for colonial development.
Paulistas backwoodsmen from São Paulo, Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century.
Minas Gerais Brazilian region where gold was discovered in 1695; a gold rush followed.
Rio de Janeiro Brazilian port used for mines of Minas Gerais; became capital in 1763.
sociedad de castas Spanish American social system based on racial origins; Europeans on top, mixed races in the middle, Indians and African slaves at the bottom.
peninsulares Spanish-born residents of the New World.
Creoles people of European ancestry born in Spanish New World colonies; dominated local economies; ranked socially below peninsulares.
amigos del país clubs and associations dedicated to reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvement rather than political reform.
War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713); wide-ranging war fought between European nations; resulted in the installation of Philip of Anjou as king of Spain.
Charles III Spanish monarch (1759–1788); instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
José de Galvez Spanish Minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate creoles from the upper colonial bureaucracy; created intendants for local government.
Marquis of Pombal Prime Minister of Portugal (1755–1776); strengthened royal authority in Brazil, expelled the Jesuits, enacted fiscal reforms, and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
Comunero Revolt a popular revolt against Spanish rule in New Granada in 1781; suppressed as a result of government concessions and divisions among rebels.
Tupac Amaru II Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many in the lower social classes; revolt failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
Created by: amygilstrap7