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plant devolpment

chapter 2, 3 and 4 study guide

fibrous root system consist of many profusely branched roots, capture water as it begins to peculate into the ground, drawing materials supplies from the surface soil before the nutrients are leached to lower levels
tap root sytem sends one or two rapidly growing, sparsely branched roots straight down into the soil to draw from deep water tubes and mineral supply,good for shifting soils and windy locations-greater storage capacity because they enlarge in diameter as well as length
drip zone an area beyond the leaf canopy to which rain is channeled from the foliage above.
root cap cover the meristem, rubbed off easily but quickly replaced from within, it dries and peels from the surface
root hairs where water absorption takes place- extensions of the outer root cells that increase water absorption area by hundred fold
shoot stystem consists of the plants principle aerial stems, their branches and attached leaves.
apical bud stems growing tip- involved in making the stems longer by a process of cell division and elongation indicates the orderly arrangements of leaves on the stem and makes provision for the eventual development of branches.
leaf primordial on either side of the apical meristem, like earlobes represent the first stages of leaf formation-fold over the meristem to protect it against desiccation by sun and wind
desiccation the state of extreme dryness
axillary bud primordium small bulge, beginning of a potential branch- arise form the external buds located in the angle between the leaf and stem.
axil between the leaf and the stem
nodes where the leaf and axillary bud primordium develop
internodes clear stem sections between each node.
alternate leaf pattern leaf connects to the stem by alternating down the stem
opposite leaf pattern leafs are directly across from each other at the nodes on each side of the stem.
whorled leaf pattern the leaf goes all the way around the stem at the node and are repeated by each by the internode.
woody perennials bearing large numbers of branches are classified as either trees or shrubs
lenticels scattered bumps that may look like scale insects on the smooth, young back of a winter twig are actually breathing pores- which gasses , including oxygen pass to and from the living cells of the inner bark.
leaf scars left as a reminder of foliage that fills in autumns past. small dots can be seen-bundles of food- and water conducting cells that once exchange these materials between stem and leaf when the two were united.
bud scales it encloses the twigs growing tip and it is encased in it-responds to the first sign of spring- dormant bud encased in glossy bud scales for winters duration.
apical terminal bud forms when a overlapping bud scales form tightly to cover the apical bud.
terminal bud scales scars their numbers reveal the twigs age. rings of scales scars indicate where the stem suspend growth for a winter season.
petioles leaf stalk -rotates the leaf blade to track the suns movement throughout the day- provides greater flexibility in heavy winds and rains.
petiole leaf meaning one with a petiole contrasted with a sessile leaf.
sessile leaf which the blade is directly attached to the stem.
simple leaf leaf in which the blade is NOT divided into smaller units (leaflets).
compound leaf leaf in which the blade is divided into seperate leaflets
leaflets portion of the blade of a compound leaf
pinnately compound compound leaf with leaflets distributed on both sides of the rachis
palmatetely compound compound leaf with all leaflets attached from one point at the tip of the petiole.
pinnate venation A vein pattern in which major veins are arranged in rows on each side of the midrib
palmate venation Vein pattern in which the major veins radiate from one point.
reticular venation netlike vein pattern in some leaves.
intercalary meristems areas of cell division inserted between the blade and the stem.
epidermis outer boundary of the stem is a single layer of cells- outer layer of cells in a herbaceous plant organ.
cuticle layer of waxy cutin superimposed on and imprequetz the outer walls of epidermal cells. prevents dehydration of the leaf above the upper and lower epidermis.
cutin layer of wax forming a cuticle layer.
glaucous stem smooth and having a waxy bloom
pubescent stem hairy, having short hairs
cortex several layers of cells "shell"- the region in roots and stems immediately inside the epidermis
pith a region of parenchyma cells at the center of the stem
vascular bundle a stanond of conducting tissue containing the xylem and phloem.
primary phloem food- conducting cell, that are smaller
primary xylem water -conducting tissue of plants
vascular cambuim a meristemic tissue whose cells divide laterally (toward the side), and results in increase in stems diameter during secondary growth process.
cork cambium responsible for formation of cork and the outer tissue of the trees bark.
secondary phloem forms a band around the xylem on the outside- wood cells , when the vascular cambium divides in an outward direction- inner portion of the bark.
secondary xylem 'tree trunks wood',- always thicker than the bark.
wood cells the dense tissue composed of secondary xylem in the stem and roots
vascular rays narrow sheet of cells running radially across the secondary vascular tissues of a stem or root.
sapwood heartwood most recently formed wood, closest to the cambium, conducts water up the tree trunk
springwood xylem laid down by the vascular cambium in spring, and early summer; also called early wood
summerwood xylem laid down by the vascular cambium in late summer; also called late wood.
annual rings each represents one year of growth
endodermis which materials and water are directed as they make their way into the xylem.
pericycle The place from which branch roots arise- located deeply inside the parent root.
upper epidermis on the upper portion of the leaf
lower epidermis on the lower portion of the leaf
mesophyll middle layer between the two epidermal layers divided into two parts
palisade cells arranged directly below the epidermis, ready to catch light when it firsts enters the leaf
spongy cells mesophyll lower area loosely packed to allow gasses- carbon dioxide , oxygen and water vapor- to move freely between them
stomata cells gas enters through the leaf in thousands of micropores in its surface, often in lower epidermis- being located on the lower part it keeps from becoming plugged with dust that normally collects on the upper leaf surface.
guard cells each stoma is bordered by two special cells that control the size of its opening- in a relaxed state the cells lie parallel to each.other with no openings between them
parenchyma surrounding the primary vascular tissues- pith and cortex primarily composed of these cells.
cells totipotency cells ability to differentiate into other cell types.
sieve plates the perforated end- wall of a sieve tube member
sieve tube a food conducting cells
companion cells a phloem cell containing a nucleus, adjacent to the sieve tube.
vessels through which water is distributed to all parts of a plant
fiber cells holding a branch or large leaf in a position yet has sufficient flexibility to move in wind-- fibers are long and narrow lignified walls.
tracheids water conducting , longer and narrower than vessels but are no less effective in water transport--found in club moses, angiosperms.
Created by: Dirtbikes1234



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