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AP Psychology Unit 3

Biology (A,B,C)

Phrenology The nineteenth century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits. Franz Gall was the founder of Phrenology
Key Quote "Everything psychological is simultaneously biological"
Neuron A specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses. In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the dendrites, to the cell body, to the axon of a single neuron
Dendrites Receive incoming signals from other neurons The bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Axon Is the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body to other neurons or muscles or glands. It is the longest part of the cell body. The speed with which a neural impulse travels is increased with it is encased by a myelin sheath.
Multiple Sclerosis In this myelin sheath, which is a single cell whose membrane wraps around the axon, is destroyed with inflammation and scarring. The slowdown of neural communication in M.S. involves degeneration of the myelin sheath
Action Potential A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron. It is produced by depolarization of the neural membrane. This travels in one direction toward the axon terminal.
Depolarization The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron.
Threshold The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
All-or-none Response Is characteristic of the initiation of neural impulses; increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential
Selective Permeability The axon of a resting neuron has gates that do not allow positive sodium ions to pass through the cell membrane. It is of a neural membrane that creates a resting potential
Refractory Period Refers to a time interval in which dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons. Another action potential is not possible during this time.
Neurotransmitters The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons. Are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the axon
Synapse A junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
Reuptake Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
aCH (Acetylcholine) Functions Muscle movement, attention, arousal, memory, emotion,
Dopamine Functions Voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion
Serotonin Functions Sleep, wakefulness, appetite, mood, aggression, impulsivity, sensory perception, temperature regulation, pain supression
Endorphins Functions Pain relief, pressure
Norepinephrine (a hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter) Learning, memory, dreaming, awakening, emotion, stress-related increase in heart rate, stress-related slowing of digestive processes
GABA Main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
Glutamate Main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
Serotonin An undersupply of __________ is linked to depression
Prozac, Serotonin ______, used to treat depression, prevents reuptake of ________
Opiate, Endorphins _____ drugs occupy the same receptor sites as ________
Alzheimer's, ACh __________ disease is linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce ___
Schizophrenia, Dopamine ____________ is linked with excess receptor activity for ________
GABA, Seizures An undersupply of ____ is linked to _______
Motor Neuron, ACh Transferring messages from a __________ to a leg muscle requires ___
Endorphins Feeling little fatigue, discomfort, or pain after playing sports is caused by ________
ACh, muscular paralysis When the release of ___ is blocked, the result is ______ _______
Migraine headaches, glutamate ______ ________ are linked with an oversupply of _______
Parkinson's disease, dopamine The tremors of ________ result from the death of nerve cells that produce _______
Substance P, endorphins _________ works in opposition with _______ to regulate pain
Agonists Molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and mimic the neurotransmitters effects. Opiates drugs have molecular structures similar to endorphins and mimic their effects
Antagonists Molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and that neurotransmitter's effects. Schizophrenia have overactive dopamines systems. Drugs used to treat this disorder prevent dopamine from binding
Psychoactive Drugs Interfere with normal neural transmission at the synapse
The Nervous System The body's speedy electrochemical information system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
Nerves Neural cables containing many axons
Central Nervous System The brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
Somatic Nervous System The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System The part of the peripheral nervous central system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Sympathetic Nervous System The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous System The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Sensory Neuron Nerve cells within the nerves system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organisms environment into internal electrical impulses. Part of the peripheral nervous system
Motor Neuron A nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or cord. Part of the peripheral system
Interneuron A neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of of a reflex arc. They are located exclusively within the brain and spinal cord.
Parasympathetic vs Sympathetic An accelerated heartbeat is caused by the sympathetic nervous system while a slowed heartbeat is caused by the parasympathetic nervous system. Parasymp (Digestive Activity and Contracts Bladder) vs Symp (Inhibits and Relax)
Reflex A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus. Sensing pain and the withdrawal reflex is activated by inter neurons in the spinal cord. Reflexes enable us to respond to stimuli before they have a chance to do us harm
Neural Networks Interconnecting clusters of neurons in the central nervous system. The strengthening of synaptic connection facilitates the formation of neural networks. People can simultaneously process many aspects of sensory information such as colour, shape, size
Hormones Chemical messengers of the endocrine system. They influence growth, reproduction, metabolism, and mood. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
Pituitary Gland The master gland of the endocrine system. This gland regulates body growth.
Epinephrine and Norepinehrine Are released by the adernal glands during the "fight or flight" respons
A Feedback System Connects the brain and the endocrine system during puberty
Nervous System Charactersitcs Mode: Electrical to Chemical, Messengers: Neurotransmitters, Release: Close to the cell of influence, Target Cells: Specific location (only at nerve supply), Speed: Fast, Duration: Short
Endocrine System Mode: Blood borne, Messengers: Hormones, Release: Distant to cell of influence, Target Cells: More Widespread, Speed: Slow, Duration: Long
Biological Psychology A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behaviour
Angular Gyrus Brain area that recieves visual information and turns it into auditory code for the Wernicke's area to process and understand.
Monozygotic Twins MZ Identical Twins
Dizygotic Twins DZ Fraternal Twins
Evocative Action When who you are affects the environment, which in turn leads the environment to act back on you (i.e. crying baby)
Dopamine Neurotransmitter in charge of movement, connected to the hypothalamus (also part of the body's reward center). Diseases related: Parkinson's (too little) and Schizophrenia (too much)
Seratonin Neurotransmitter in charge of mood, appetite, etc. Depression (too little)
ACh Neurotransmitter in charge of movement botox (antagonist) blocks from being relayed. Alzheimer's (deficit)
SSRI Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibtors (Agonistic)
Endorphines Natural opiates and painkillers in the body (morphine, heroine) agonists
Brain Lesion The surgical destruction of brain tissue
Electroencephalogram (EEG) An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
CT Scan A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
MRI A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue; it shows brain. Used to detect enlarged fluidfilled brain regions in patients with schizophrenia
PET A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain is performing a task such as movement or speech
Structural MRI Used to study brain anatomy.This scans measure glucose levels in the brain
Functional MRI (fMRI) Used to study the brain function. This scans measure oxygen levels. Researchers would use this to identify regions of the brain that handle pain
Order in the Brain Brainstem -> Midbrain -> Limbic -> Cortical
Brainstem Body Temperature, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure
Midbrain Sleep, Appetite/Satiety, "Arousal"
Limbic Motor Regulation, Emotional Reactivity, Sexual Behaviour, Attachment
Cortical Affliation, Concrete Thought, Absolute Thought
Brainstem Part 1 The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. This is responsible for automatic survival functions; we are least consciously aware of its processes and functions.
Brainstem Part 2 It is the crossover point where most nerves to and form each side of the brain connect with the body's opposite side
Medulla The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing. Example: Your life would be threatened if you suffered destruction of the medulla
Pons Help coordinate movements; lies above the medulla. The is a relay center for neural messages
Reticular Formation A nerve network that helps control arousal. Example: This arouses you to a state of alertness when someone calls your name; severing it can cause a coma
Thalamus Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas of the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. Receives information from all senses EXCEPT SMELL.
Thalamus Example Example: Experiencing the physical pleasure of a hot shower; relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex
Cerebellum The "little brain" at the back of the brainstem; processes and sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance. Example: The cerebellum relies on visual information in coordinating our voluntary movements
The Limbic System A complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).
Hippocampus Processes memory of new recent information and recent events
Amygdala Plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear. Electrically stimulating it will cause an animal to behave aggressively
Hypothalamus Part 1 Direct several maintenance activities including: eating, drinking, and body temperature. The link between the nervous system and endocrine system; regulates the secretions of the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus Part 2 It contains reward centers that triggers the release of dopamine
Cerebrum Two large hemispheres that contribute 85% of the brain's weight; it forms specialized work teams that enable our perceiving, thinking, and speaking.
Cerebral Cortex The thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells that cover the cerebrum. The larger the cortex, the greater capacity for learning, thinking, and adaptability . The body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
Frontal Lobes Involved in speaking, muscle movements, planning, and judgement
Parietal Lobes Receives sensory input for touch and body position
Temporal Lobes Includes the auditory areas, each receiving information from the opposite ear.
Occipital Lobes The visual processing center of the brain
Association Area Areas that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Motor Cortex An area at the rear of the front lobes that controls voluntary movements.
Sensory Cortex Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
The Cortical Homunculus A pictorial representation of the divisions of the primary motor cortex and the primary somatosensory cortex. Body areas requiring the greatest control occupy the greatest amount of cortical space. A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated
The Cortical Homunculus Body areas requiring the greatest control occupy the greatest amount of cortical space. A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated with our lips
Werknicke's Area The brain area primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech. Example: Damage to this area disrupts meaning
Broca's Area The brain area primarily involved with controlling speech. Example: Damage to the area disrupts speech
Producing Speech, Reading aloud, and Understanding Speech Subfunctions of speech are processed by different parts of the brain
Aphasia Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Plasticity The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area. Example: If a blind person uses one finger to read Braile, the brain area dedicated to the finger expands as the sense of touch invades the visual cortex.
Constraint Induced Therapy Teaching a patient to regain the use of an impaired limb by limiting his or her use of the good limb. The goal of this is to rewire damaged brains by forcing patients to use a non-functioning limb
Neurogenesis The process by which neurons are generated. Recent brain research indicates that new neurons are actually formed in the brain. Physical exercise and exposure to stimulating environments are most likely to promote neurogenesis
Lateralization The localization of function to the right side or left side of the brain. Example: The ability to recognize faces with the right hemisphere but not with the left hemisphere.
Function of Corpus Callosum Information is quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by it
Research on Left Hands Suggests that genes or prenatal factors play a role in handedness
Split Brain A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting corpus callosum. Neurosurgeons severe the corpus callosum in human patients to reduce epileptic seizures
Left Brain Language, Speech, Writing, Calculation, Time Sense, Rhythm, Ordering of Complex Movements
Right Brain Nonverbal, Perceptual Skills, Visualization, Recognition of patterns, faces, and melodies. Recognition and expression of emotion, Spatial Skills, Simple Language Comprehension
Consciousnesses Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Dual Processing The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. "Much of our everyday thinking, feeling, and acting operates outside our conscious awareness".
Example of Dual Processing The brainstem keeps our heart beating while the cerebral cortex maintains awareness of the outside world
Corpus Callosum The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Glial Cells Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Behaviour Genetics The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits. Behaviour geneticists assess the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences
Nature vs Nurture Controversy Nature refers to biology and nurture refers to environment
Genes The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes. The information carried in a gene is expressed as a protein. Depending on certain environmental condition specific they can be either active or inactive
DNA A complex molecule containing genetic information. Genes are a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein
Chromosomes The threadlike structures that contain genes. These are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid and are located within human bone cells. A human sperm contains 23 of it
Genome The complete set of genetic instructions in an organism's chromosomes.
Identical Twins Originate from the fertilization of a single cell by a single sperm; share all of their genes
Fraternal Twins Originate from the fertilization of two egg cells by two sperm cells; share about only half of their genes. Compared with identical twins, they are less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar be extraversion
Twin Studies Reveal the absolute and relative importance of environmental and genetic influences on individuals in a sample. This compares identical and fraternal twins and twins raised apart to study the impact of family environment and genetic makeup
Twin Studies Example Suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by heredity. Also suggests that emotional instability is genetically predisposed
DZ Twins Different DNA, Same Environment. If intelligence is the same its due to the environment. If intelligence is different its due to the genetics
MZ Twins Same DNA, Different Environment, If intelligence is the same it is due to genetics, If intelligence is different its due to environment
Jim Twins Identical Twins separated at birth and reunited 38 years later. They had surprising similarities married woman of the same name and named their son and dogs the same name
Twin Studies Cons One should be cautious before attributing these similarities to genetic factors because any two strangers are likely to share coincidental similarities
Personality Traits Are more strongly influenced by genes than home environment. Adopted children are more likely to demonstrate levels of agreeableness and extroversion more similar to that of their biological parents
Adoptive Parents Most likely to influence the political and religious attitudes of their adopted children
Heritability Part 1 Refers to the extent to which trait differences among individuals are attribute to genetic variations. It accounts for variations among people, not in specific individuals. Heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
Heritability Part 2 To estimate trait this researchers may make use of twin studies
Heritability Example Two plants are grown under the same environmental conditions, including the same soil conditions, light and water, but one grows to 2 feet tall and the other is 1 feet tall. Its 95%
Self Regulation Genes respond to environmental conditions, reacting to different environmental contexts in different ways.
Self Regulation Example An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature controlled genetic switch
Interaction Nature and nurture regularly interact. People have always responded so positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has a developed a socially confident and outgoing personality
Molecular Behaviour Geneticist Examines link between genes and specific disorders. They use blood samples or cheek swabs to obtain DNA from the nucleus of a cell.
Molecular Behaviour Geneticist Example This person would examine chromosomal differences between a fraternal twin who experiences learning disability one doesn't
Evolutionary Psychology Studies the evolution of behaviour and the mind using principles of natural selection. Its study emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviours are those that have promoted reproductive success
Evolutionary Psychology Example Pregnant women from cultures across the world tend to avoid better, strongly flavoured foods because these can be an indication of foods toxic toward a developing baby, so this preference developed through natural selection
Natural Selection The reproductive advantaged enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment.It acts on populations
Natural Selection Example A genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success; that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations
Selective Mating The process by which intentional selection of individuals with desired traits or characteristics are mated in a systematic way such that those traits or characteristics have a higher likelihood of being transmitted to offspring and subsequent generation
Selective Mating Example Belyaev and Trut spent decades breeding the wild silver fox and selecting reproduction only those individuals in each generation that showed the least fear of humans. After several generations, a majority of silver foxes showed no fear of humans.
Mutation A random error in gene application
Adaptation An inherited physical or behavioural characteristic that increases an organisms chance for survival
Tendencies of Men Men are more likely to sacrifice to gain sex and more likely perceive warm responses as a sexual come-on
Cautious Attitude Toward Sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than men because the birthing process is time consuming
Reproductive Potential Evolutionary Psychologists attribute gender differences in attitudes toward sex to the fact that men have greater then it over women
Recreational Sex Men are more likely than women to initiate this because this has historically served to a more successful reproductive strategy from men than women
Preference Young men prefer older women, mid-twenties men prefer women their own age, and older men prefer younger women because they attracted to women with peak fertility
Health Preference Men are more likely than women to prefer mates with a fertile looking appearance and less likely than women to prefer mates with wealth and social status
Mature and Affluent Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to me who seem this
Potential Long Term Mates Woman rated men higher as potential this when they spent more time more time looking at baby pictures because women prefer men who express interest in caring for joint offspring
Evolutionary Psychology Part 2 This works backwards to propose an explanation; thus any behavior can be explained for human behaviours. It provides hindsight explanations for human behaviors
Evolutionary Psychology Example Underestimates the impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behaviour. These people have suggested that women prefer monogamy and men promiscuity in ensuring the survival of their genetic material.
Created by: SinthuGotCash
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