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VME Horses

Common Equine Emergencies and Frist Aide

Warning Signs of problems (subtle) anorexia, depressed, laying down longer than usually, off by themselves, fever (Temp >101.5), abnormal gum color (red, purple, white or yellow)
Warning Signs (more severe) Squinting, swollen or tearing eye (especially in SE because of fungi); yellow or green nasal discharge, sweating profusely, lame
Warning Signs (Most sever) Rolling, pawing, colic; unable to move or get up; walking drunk (ataxia), profuse bleeding, difficultly breathing.
It is essentially you know a horses ---- vital signs, so you can note a change in the parameters. normal
Normal Signs on Adult Horse- Temp; Heart rate; respiratory rate; gum color and number of poops per day Temp 99-101.5; Heart Rate- 28-48; Respiratory rate 10-24 breaths/minute; Pink gums; 6-10 piles of manure per 24 hours
Normal Neonate- Temp; Heart rate; respiratory rate; gum color, normal suckling behavior and number of poops Temp- 99-101.5; Heart rate- 80-120; respiratory rate 20-40; gum color is pink; nursing 4-6 times per hours and number of poops 2-4 piles per day of pasty poop
10 Things to have in emergency first aid supplie kit- Thermometer, Stethoscope, Flashlight, essential phone numbers; latex gloves, wound dressing, poultice, antiseptics, soap scissors, eye wash, hoof pick and knife, cold pack and "bute" or phenylbutazone
What Colic is? What are mild signs? Mild signs of colic are did not eat all of meal, laying down more than normal and decreased manure production. It is abdominal pain.
Other signs of Colic? Pawing, Stretching Out, Flank watching, and abrasions on the face from rolling. Also teeth grinding, and excessive salivation. Bloated abdomen, and rolling getting up and down, thrashing.
What causes Colic? Many things- mostly intestinal accidents, most common causes are gas, spasmodic colic and impaction, which don't require surgical intervention, about 90% of colics can be treated on the farm.
Three generally categories of colics: Intestinal Dysfunction; Accidents and Inflamation and Ulceration Dysfunction- Gas, spasms, impaction from sand. Or something floated in the wrong location.; Accidents- Displacements or torsions, strangulation. Inflammation/Ulceration- colitis (always cx diarrhea), enteritis (notice gastric reflux), gastric ulcers
Gas/Spasmodic Colic- Cxs Sudden changes in diet- ie new hay, lush green pasture, or too much grain. Stress?; parasites (where tapeworms are found at the illeocecum valve) and sand.
Causes of Impaction Colic- Feed material impaction can be caused by not drinking enough water (some are picky about taste), water too hot/ cold/ unavailable. Too much exercise and get dehydrated. Traveling and get dehydrated. Poor teeth, don't chew food well and poor quality hay.
Preventing colic? Through good management, high quality hay being the most important. Regular exercise, deworming, dental care bu even the colic still happen.
What to do during a Colic? Remove all feed, but not water. Take heart rate and look at gums. Call your vet, may recommend giving Banamine. Walk to prevent injury if down/rolling.
What not to do during a colic? Give more than 1 dose of Banamine without your vet; Walk the horses to exhaustion, try to pass a tube to force feed mineral oil, insert a horse rectally to given an enema.
How to tell mild colic from a going to need surgery colic? Its almost impossible to tell, because they can both present with the same symptoms and then fool you.
Treatment of Colic Pain meds, sedatives, fluid therapy (oral or IV), no feed, laxatives and as a last resort surgery.
Neurological Signs Ataxia (graded on a scale 0-5, 0 being normal and 5 being down)Unable to stand, head pressing, circling, depression or trouble swallowing.
Abrasions are partial-thickness
Lacerations are full-thickness
punctures can be the most troublesome because its hard to tell the extent of the damage.
Superficial Wounds Tx Protocal Clean with a disinfectant and water, clip the hair to inspect more closely, and abrasions on limbs may benefit from wraps to decrease swelling.
For Deep Wounds or Lacerations- may need to be sutured, ideally, sutures should be placed within 6-8 hours of injury. Clean the wound as best you can apply a light bandage until the vet arrives. Do not put any ointments onto a deep wound or laceration, wait for the vet.
Lameness usually occurs in the ----; and most common problem is the ... 95% of all lameness occurs in the foot. Most common problem is a foot abscess: can occur after a sole bruise. Need to establish drainage to relieve pain and may need a pain reliever.
Causes of non-weight bearing lameness: foot abscess, fracture, septic joint or tendon sheath; laminitis (usually more than one limb affected)
Eyes Any abnormalities with eye should be brought to the vets attention immediately.
Fever can be sign of? Fever can be a result of infection, inflammation, viral disease, tumors, immune-mediated diseases, drug administration, heat stress and exhaustion or sever muscle injury.
What to do for a fever- If the temp is greater than 103 hose down with cold weather, and place in well ventilated cool area with fan, banamine may be recommended.
Choke (Esophageal obstruction) Occurs when the horses eat too fast and food becomes stuck in the esophagus. Causes- bolting feed, dental disease, neurological conditions causing difficulty swallowing, and congenital or acquired esophageal problems.
Clinical Signs of Choke- Frothy green (feed tinged) nasal discharge); stretching out neck; coughing/distressed; gag; signs of colic.
Created by: kccroy