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VT Terminology Ch6

Chapter 6 Veterinary Technician Terminology "Gut Instincts"

digestive system, alimentary system, gastrointestinal system, and GI system terms used to describe the body system that is a long, muscular tube beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus
aliment/o the combining form for nourishment
oral cavity lips and cheeks, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and periodontium
or/o and stomat/o the combining forms for mouth
gnath/o the combining form for jaw
prognathia an elongated mandible, or mandible that is overshot
brachygnathia a shortened mandible, or a mandible that is undershot
labia the medical term for lips
labium a single lip
cheil/o and labi/o the combining forms for lips
bucc/o the combining for cheek
buccal pertaining to or directed toward the cheek
palate forms the roof of the mouth
hard palate forms the bony rostral portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
rugae specialized mucous membrane contains irregular folds
rug/o the combining form for wrinkle or fold
soft palate forms the flexible caudal portion of the palate; involved in closing off the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not move into the nostrils
palat/o the combining form for palate
tongue a movable muscular organ in the oral cavity used for tasting and processing food, grooming and articulating sound.
papiilae elevations
filiform threadlike papillae
fungiform mushroomlike papillae
vallate cup-shaped papillae
frenulum a band of connective tissue connected to the ventral surface of the oral cavity
gloss/o and lingu/o the combining forms for tongue
lingual pertaining to the tongue
dent/o dent/i and odont/o the combining forms for teeth
dentition the teeth as a whole; the teeth arranged in the maxillary (upper) and the mandibular (lower) arcades
deciduous dentition the temporary set of teeth that erupt in young animals and are replaced at or near maturity; also known as "primary dentition"
decidu/o the combining form for shedding
permanent dentition the set of teeth designed to last the lifetime of an animal
retained deciduous tooth the deciduous tooth that has not been shed
incisor front tooth used for cutting; an incision is a cut ; abbreviated " I "
canine long, pointed bonelike tooth located between the incisors and premolars; also called "fang" and "cuspid"; abv. " C "
cuspid having one point; long pointed bonelike tooth located between the incisors and premolars; abv. " C "
premolar cheek tooth found between the canine teeth and molars; also called "bicuspids"; abv. " P "
molar most caudally located permanent cheek tooth used for grinding; abv. " M "
dental formula represents the type of tooth and the number of each tooth type found in that species
enamel hard white substance covering the dentin of the crown of the tooth
cementum bonelike connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth
dentin connective tissue surrounding the tooth pulp
pulp consists of nerves, blood vessels, and loose connective tissue
apical foramen the hole at the tip of the root where nerves and blood vessels enter the tooth
periodontia structures that support the teeth
alveoli sockets or saclike dilations that teeth are situated in
alveolar bone thin layer of compact bone that forms the tooth socket
periodontal ligament fibrous structure that holds the tooth in the alveolus
gingiva mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth and forms the lining of the mouth
gingiv/o the combining form for gums
gingival sulcus space that surrounds the tooth
salivary glands a group of cells located in the oral cavity that secrete a clear substance containing digestive enzymes
saliva moistens food, begins the digestive process by aiding in bolus formation and some digestive enzyme activity, and cleanses the mouth
mandibular salivary glands salivary glands found near the mandible
sublingual salivary glands salivary glands found under the tongue
zygomatic salivary glands salivary glands found medial to the zygomatic arch
paratoid salivary glands salivary glands found near the ear
para- prefix meaning near
ot/o the combining for ear
sialaden/o and sial/o the combining forms for saliva and salivary glands
pharynx cavity in the caudal oral cavity that joins the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems; also known "throat"
pharyng/o the combining form for pharynx
esophagus a collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach; also known as "gullet"
esophag/o the combining for esophagus
sphincter a ringlike muscle that constricts an opening
abdomen cavity located between the diaphragm and pelvis
abdomin/o and ceil/o the combining forms for abdomen
lapar/o the combining forms for the abdomen and flank
peritoneum the membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavities
parietal peritoneum the layer of the peritoneum that covers the wall of the abdomen and pelvis
visceral peritoneum the layer of the peritoneum that covers the organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities
lesser omentum a fold of peritoneum that connects the stomach to other visceral organs
greater omentum a fold of peritoneum that connect the stomach to the dorsal abdominal wall
gastr/o the combining form for stomach
monogastric is a classification of animals that have one true stomach
ruminant is a classification of animals that have one glandular stomach as well as 3 forestomachs (the rumen, recticulum, and omasum)
glandular stomach produces secretions for digestion
cardia entrance area located nearest the esophagus
fundus base of an organ, which is the cranial, rounded part
body main portion of an organ,which is the rounded base or bottom; also called the "corpus"
antrum caudal part, which is the constricted part of the stomach that joins the pylorus
pylorus narrow passage between the stomach and the duodenum
pylor/o the combining form that means gatekeeper
pyloric sphincter the muscle ring that controls the flow material from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
intestinal flora normal microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract
cud regurgitated food particles, fiber, rumen fluid, and rumen microorganisms
rumen largest compartment of the ruminant stomach that serves as a fermentation vat; also called the "paunch"
reticulum most cranial compartment of the ruminant stomach; also called the "honeycomb"
omasum third compartment of the ruminant stomach
abomasum fourth compartment of the ruminant stomach;also called the "true stomach"
mesentary a fold of peritoneum that attaches the small intestine to the dorsal abdominal wall
enter/o the combining form for small intestine
gastroenterology the study of the stomach and small intestine
duodenum proximal or first portion of the small intestine
dueden/i and duoden/o the combining forms for duodenum
jejunum middle portion of the small intestine
jejun/o the combining form for jejunum
ileum distal or last portion of the small intestine; also known as "aboral"
ile/o the combining form for ileum
cecum a pouch that food enters from the ileum
cec/o the combining form for cecum
colon continues from the cecum to its termination at the rectum
col/o the combining form colon
haustra sacculations of the colon and cecum
teniae longitudinal smooth muscle bands
rectum caudal portion of the large intestine
rect/o the combining form for rectum
anus the caudal opening of the GI tract
an/o the combining form for anus
anorectal term that means pertaining to the anus and rectum
proct/o the combining for the anus and rectum
anal sacs a pair of pouches in the skin between the internal and external anal sphincters
liver located caudal to the diaphragm
hepat/o the combining form for liver
hypoglycemia a condition when blood sugar is low
hepatocytes liver cells
sinusoids channels
parenchyma the functional elements of a tissue or organ
biliary pertaining to the bile
emulsification fat digestion
bilirubin a pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin that is released by the liver in bile.
gallbladder a sac embedded in the liver that stores bile for later use
cyst/o the combining form for cyst, sac of fluid, urinary bladder
chol/e the combining form for bile or gallbladder
doch/o the combining form that means receptable
cholecystic pertaining to the gallbladder
choledochus common bile duct
pancreas an elongated gland located near the cranial portion of the duodenum
pancreat/o the combining form for pancreas
trypsin an enzyme that digests protein
lipase an enzyme that digests fat
amylase enzyme that digests carbohydrates
digestion process of breaking down foods into nutrients that the body can use
enzymes substances that chemically change another substance
-ase suffix of enzymes
metabolism the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
anabolism the building of body cells and substances
meta- prefix that means change or beyond
catabolism breaking down of body cells and substances
absorption process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system; also known as "assimulation"
nutrient a substance that is necessary for normal functioning of the body
villi tiny hairlike projections
villus a single projection
vill/i the combining form for tufts of hair
crypts valley or blind sacs
prehension grasping of food, involves collecting food in the oral cavity
mastication breaks food into smaller pieces and mixes the ingesta with saliva
deglutition moves chewed ingesta into the pharynx and into the esophagus
peristalsis series of wavelike contractions of smooth muscles
-stalsis suffix that means contraction
chyme semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes from the stomach
segmentation mixes and delays movement of ingesta
defecation emptying of the bowels
ballottement diagnostic technique of hitting or tapping the wall of a fluid filled structure to bounce a solid structure against a wall
barium contrast material used for radiographic studies
barium swallow oral barium given to evaluate the GI tract
barium enema rectal barium given to evaluate the GI tract
enema introduction of fluid into the rectum
biopsy removal of tissue to examine
blood tests determination of blood parameters used to detect some diseases of the GI tract
preprandial before a meal
postprandial after a meal
colonoscopy endoscopic visual examination of the inner surface of the colon
endoscope tubelike instrument with lights and refracting mirrors that is used to examine the body or organs internally
esophagoscopy endoscopic visual examination of the inner surface of the esophagus
fecal examinations various procedures used to detect parasitic diseases on animals
gastroscopy endoscopic visual examination of the inner surface of the stomach
hemooccult test for "hidden" blood in the stool
radiography imaging of internal structures is created by the exposure of sensitized film to X-rays
ultrasound imaging of internal body structures by recording echoes of sound waves
achalasia inability to relax the smooth muscle of the GI tract
adontia absence of teeth
aerophagia "swallowing" of air
anal sacculitis inflammation of the pouches located around the anus
inspissation process of rendering dry or thick by evaporation and is used to describe the anal sac fluid in animals with anal sacculitis
anorexia lack or loss of appetite
ascariasis parasitic infestation with roundworms of the genus Ascaris
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
atresia occlusion or absence of normal body opening or tubular organ
bloat accumulation of gas in the digestive tract
borborygmus gas movement in the GI tract that produces a rumbling noise
bruxism involuntary grinding of the teeth
cachexia general ill health and malnutrition;
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
cirrhosis degenerative disease that disturbs the structure and function of the liver
cirrh/o tawny, orange yellow, which is the color of cirrhotic livers
colic severe abdominal pain
colitis inflammation of the colon
constipation condition of prolonged GI transit time, making the stool hard,dry, and difficult to pass
coprophagia ingestion of fecal material
copr/o the combining form for feces
coprophagic therapy feeding a suspension of fecal pellets from a healthy animal to an ill animal, is used in some animal species such as guinea pigs and rabbits to treat GI disease
cribbing vice of equine in which an object is grasped between the teeth, pressure is applied, and air is inhaled
dehydration condition of excessive loss of body water or fluid
dental calculus abnormal mineralized deposit that forms
dental caries decalcification of teeth, producing a hole in thetooth
diarrhea abnormal frequency and fecal material
displaced abomasum disease of ruminants in which the fourth stomach compartment becomes trapped under the rumen; also called "DA"
diveticulitis inflammation of a pouch or pouches occurring in the wall of a tubular organ
diverticulum a pouch occurring on the wall of a tubular organ; diverticula are pouches occurring on the wall of a tubular organ
dyschezia difficulty defecating; Chezein is Greek for stool
dysentery number of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestine, abdominal pain, and diarrhea
dysphagia difficulty swallowing or eating
emaciation marked wasting or excessive leanness
emesis forcible expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth
Created by: KTHindsCC