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VME Horses

Vaccination Plan

QuestionAnswer
VIP Information for Examination- Normal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, gum color, and the average number of poops per day: Temp- 99-101.5 F; 28-48 beats/per min; 10-24 breaths/min; pink gums and 6-10 well formed manure piles per day.
Why Vaccinate? (4) Its a critical component of a horse health maintenance program. Prmies the imune system for a quick response, and makes sure the immune system can respond to it. Prevents life-threatening disease and minimizes/eliminates contagious diseases
Vaccination can prevent three of the big fatal diseases? Rabies, Tetanus, and Encephalomyeltis (EEE/WEE/WNV)
Aids in prevetion of other disease, meaning work most of the time: (8) Prevents disease about 99% of the time West Nile Virus, Rhinopneumonitis (Equine Herpesvirus), Influenza, Strangles, Botulism, Potomac Horse Fever, Rotavirus and others. Vaccination should be used in conjunction with good health management.
What are guidelines for vaccination? No general guidelines for every horse, have to take into account breed, function, age, sex and situation. Also where you are geographically
Over what course of times should foals recevie their vaccines? Studies show that the immune system reacts best to a series of three shots given prior to a year.
Where are vaccines given? IM, in the big traiangle or thick muscle of the neck, and some that are newer are given IN (intranasal).
What are IN (intranasal) vaccines excellent at? Given for Influenza and strangles, really help prime the upper respitory tract, but it doesn't do much systematically, better as a local preventative.
Adverse reactions in vaccines are... and symptoms are (5) uncommon, but these symptoms can present in increasing rarity: muscle soreness, swelling, fever, lethargy, swollen legs, vasculitis, colic.
Maternal Antibodies protect foal but inhibit vaccines effectiveness, however adequate passive transfer of these antibodies give foals the same titer levels as the mare. Because of this mares are vaccinated 4-6 weeks pror to foaling to take advantage of maternal antibodies.
Vaccination of Foals starts at about ... ,except in the SE where you start at - mo, because... Vaccination of Foals starts at about 5-6 months,except in the SE where you start at 4 mo, because the danger of West Nile is year round.
All Horses Absolutely Need to be vaccinated for: (4) Tetanus, Encephalomyeltits, West Nile Virus, and Rabies
Most Horses and especially performance horses should be vacinated for: Influenza and Equine Herpesvirus (cx abortions in brood mares so should be a must if a brood mare)
These vaccines are more geographic oriented by some horses should have: Strangles, Potomac Horse Fever, Botulism, and Rotovirus
Tetanus is cause by:, present in:,.. enter through:.. caused by clostridium tetani, present in intestine, manure, and soil. The spores can live in the soil for years. Spores enter through lacerations or the umbilicus.
Clinical Signs of Tetanus (6) Muscle stiffness, Sawhorse stance, Third eyelid prolapse, lockjaw, flaring nostrils, hypersensitive to touch.
Tetanus is contagious?, has a -- mortality rate? Tetanus is not contagious to humans or other horses. It has a high mortality rate in the US 70-80%, in other countries its lower, but treatment is very expensive.
Tetanus antitoxin is.. for previously unvaccinated horses, but it carries a risk of liver disease which is fatal, so its better to avoid.
When to vaccinate for Tetanus? You need to vaccinate every year, usually done in spring in combination with EEE/WEE. Should boost if has a wound or surgery more than six months from last dose
Encephalomyelitis is also called, there are - types: ; and the virus are transmited by.. Often referred to sleeping sickness. There are 3 types Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezualen Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE). Transmitteed through mosquitos.
Where the three types are found WEE- ?, EEE- ?; and VEE- ?. WEE- seen throughout North America, EEE- seen mostly in the East and Southeast, prevalent in Florida, and VEE has not been seen
Clinical signs of encephalomyelitis (6) Results from inflammation of the brain or spinal cord, fever, depression, staggering gait (ataxia)- first sign, progresses fiast to being down, paralysis, and seizures.
Without the vaccine the mortality rates for WEE- ?, EEE- ?; and VEE- ? EEE/VEE- 70-90% and WEE- 50%; the vaccines are safe and generally very effective agaisnt these diseases
When to vaccinate EE/WEE? All horese should be vaccinated annually in the spring, prior to mosquito season. In FL should be boosting ever 4 months. Foals should receive first does at 3-4 months of age, and 2 additional doeses one month apart.
West Nile Virus is transmitted how, causes ?, and is ? contagious. Transmited by mosquitos, causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, and not contagious from horse to horse. Endemic to all North America.
Clinical signs of West Nile Virus- Can vary; Fever, Muscle tremors, incoordination/ataxia, hypersensitieve, facial nerve or other paralysis- muscle twitches are classic symptomes. Hard to differentiate between EEE and WNV.
West Nile Viruses mortality rate is --%, those who usually don't recover are the ones who... 33%; have the inability to stand and have prolonged recumbency.
When to vaccinate and the vaccines available- Fort Dodge West Nile Innovator- ?, Merial's RecombiTek- ?, Intervets PreveNile- ? FDWNI- killed vaccine, needs to be given every 4-6 mo in SE; Merial's- recombinant vaccine ever 4-6 mo; and INtervet- modified live chimera is a annually.
Rabies is fatal..., a virus that affects the..., horses are exposed through.., and horses can .. 100% fatal in all cases, virus affecting the nervous system, horses are exposed through infected wildlife, horses can infect people.
Clinical signs of Rabies Can look like anything, behavioral changes, blindness, ataxia, fever, hypersalivation, paralysis. Colic. Generally refered to colic before being diagnosed as rabies.
Rabies: Incubation period, progression of the disease, when to vaccinate. Incubation period for 2-9 weeks since bite, death in 3-5 days once signs develop; vaccinate once a year.
Equine Influenza has an inubation period of, association with .., most commonly seen in ..., and spread by ... INcubation period 1-3 days; high fever 1-5 days; young horses (weanlings, yearlings and 2 year olds) most at risk; spread by aeosolized droplets, infected fomites- highly contagious.
Clinical Signs of Equine Influenza Cough and fever; lethargy, depression reduced appetite, muscle soreness; nasal discharge. Passes with suportive care in 10-14 days.
When to vaccinate for Influenza? Intranasal vaccine should be done ever 6 mo, intramuscular vaccine every 4 mo and should start foals at about 9 months of age.
Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) comes in two forms -1: that cxs and -4 which is a.. Also called EHV-1: abortion, neonatal disease, neuroligc disease and respiratory disease. EHV-4: respiratory disease. Also called "rhinopneumonitis"
Clinical signs for Herpes virus identical to influenza.Cough and fever; lethargy, depression reduced appetite, muscle soreness; nasal discharge. Dog sitting is common
EHV Incubation time?; Viral shedding?; need to vaccinate seperately? and how often? Pregnant mares? Incubation time 2-10 days; shed the virus for 2-3 weeks; Need to vaccinate with for both EHV-1, and -4 about 2-4 a year; with weanlings and yearlings getting it every 3 months. Pregnant mares should get in a 5,7, and 9 mo into the pregnancy
EHV-1 Neurological Form- Vaccines are not effective at preventing disease. Outbreaks can aoccur with the first signs of fever, some respiratory signs, monitor stressed horses closely.
Strangles: Streptoccous equi spp. equi- Trasnmission?; Morbidity/Mortality?; and Incubation period? Trasmission: ingestion or inhalatrion of infected discharge, so highly contagious. High morbidity, low mortality. Incubation period is 3-5 days
Clinical Signs- Cough, fever, lymph node enlargement, respiratory distress because of retropharyngeal lymph node enlargement.
Complication of strangles- Purpura and metastic (Bastard) strangles
Vaccination for Strangles- Want to vaccinate if on a previously affected farms. considered bad to vaccinate during an outbreak. INtranasal vaccine lower complication, needs to be after IM injection otherwise it will cx absess if you get some on IM spot.
Botulism cx?, endemic to? Two forms are? Causes flaccid paralyis, endemic in KY, Two forms are shaker foal syndrome, forage posioning.
Potomac Horse Fever not typically seen in FL, vaccines may reduce disease severity in horse traveling to NE or mid-atlantic states
Equine Viral Arteritis- What you need to do prior to vaccien? Always test before giving the vaccine, otherwise will ruin a horses career because it will test positive. Vaccine used to control eVA outbreaks to control transmision from carrier stallion to unaffected broodmares.
Rotavirus is and clinical signs Most commmon cause of infectious diarrhea in foals, clincial signs- profuse watery diarrhea, fever, lethargy. highly contagious.
Rotavirus vaccination- prevention- vaccination of pregant mares 30 days before foaling in endemic herds may confer modest protection
Created by: kccroy