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# AP Psychology Unit 2

### Review

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Hindsight Bias | The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research helps combat this. |

Theory | An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Example: We like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem |

Hypothesis | A testable prediction, often implied by a theory Example: Handsome men will be more successful than average looking men in getting a job |

Operational Definition | A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables The main purpose is to control variables. |

Example Of Operational Definition | An experiment was designed to study the impact of alcohol on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measures emotional stability illustrates this |

Case Study | An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles Disadvantage: Individual cases can be misleading and results in false generalizations |

Survey | A method used to investigate the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people Disadvantage: Respondents may not answer questions honestly because they want to be seen positively |

Population | All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn |

Random Sample | A sample the fairly represents a population because each member has equal chance of inclusion Example: Sending a survey to every fifteenth person in a phone book |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Disadvantage: People behave differently when they know they are being watched |

Correlation | A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together,and thus of how well either factors predicts the other It is most useful for the purposes of prediction This does not prove causation |

Correlation Coefficient | A statistical index of the relationship between two things -0.70 The sign represents the direction of the correlation ( + or -) and the number represents the strength of the correlation |

Scatterplot | A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represent the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between two variables. The amount of cluster suggests the strength of the correlation |

Illusory Correlation | The perception of a relationship where non exists The sequential of two highly unusual events is likely to contribute to this perception Example: Getting into a traffic accident on Friday the 13th and believing that Friday the 13th brings bad luck |

Experiment (Part One) | A research method in which an investigator manipulates factors that potentially produce a particular behavior. Can prove a casual relationship |

Experiment (Part Two) | This can produce a casual relationship because it allows researchers to exercise maximum control over variables. Disadvantages: Due to ethical concerns, correctional studies are at times more appropriate |

Double Blind Procedure (Part One) | An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo |

Double Blind Procedure (Part Two) | This procedure is utilized to prevent bias in research results due to demand characteristics or the placebo effect E.G.The researchers who interact with the participants would not know who was receiving the actual drug and who was receiving the placebo |

Experimental Group | In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment; that is, to one version of the independent variable. One variable tested at a time. This group is compared to the Control Group |

Control Group | In an experiment, that group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. This group closely resembles the experimental group demographically |

Independent Variable | The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied Example: Cigarettes |

Confounding (Extraneous) Variable | A factor other then the independent variable that might produce an effect on an experiment Example:Genetic Predisposition |

Dependent Variable | The outcome factor; the variable that may chance in response to manipulations of the independent variable |

Mode | The most frequency occurring score(s) in a distribution Example 87, 72, 65, 0, 81, 63, 77, 79, 90, 93, 72. 72 is your answer |

Mean | The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores Example (87+72+ 65+ 0+ 81+ 63+ 77+ 79+ 90+93+ 72) / 11 = 70.8 |

Median | The middle score in distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it 87, 72, 65, 54, 81, 63, 77, 79, 90, 93, 72 0, 63, 65, 72, 72, 77, 79, 81, 87, 90, 93. 77 is your answer |

Range | The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. It is measure of variation that is most effect by extreme scores Example: The IQ scores of the Duluth family are 100, 82, 104, 96, and 118. The answer is 118-82=36 |

Normal Curve | A symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data. Most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes |

Culture | The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next |

Debriefing | The post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants |

Critical Thinking | Thinking that does not accept argument and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumption, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions Example: Questioning whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people |

Overconfidence | Our tendency to believe we know more then we do; it inhibits critical thinking Example: Believing you are a good driver and driving recklessly |

Empirical Approach | Basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence Under controlled conditions, researchers collect evidence that may justify a cause-effect conclusion |

Wording Effects | The wording of a statement can effect the outcome of a survey. Example: Classroom prayer SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED in public schools vs Classroom prayer SHOULD BE BANNED |

Positive Correlations | Are also know as direct correlations. These variables have a direct relationship between them - as one increases or decreases, so does the other in the same direction |

Negative Correlation | Are also known as inverse correlations. These variables have an inverse relationship - as one increases the other decreases |

Random Assignment | Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, this minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the groups Example: Picking Names Out Of a Hat |

Demand Characteristics | Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave |

Replication | Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations This is important because repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings |

Variable | Any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies Example: A psychologist might study include: cognitive task performance, intelligence, gender, reaction time, etc. |

Placebo Effect | Experimental results caused by the expectation alone; any effect on the behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent |

Placebo | A harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect |

Descriptive Statistics | Statistical Measures that describe the results of a study; include measures of central tendency, variability, and correlation |

Central Tendency | A single number or value that describes the typical or central score among a set of scores. Refers to how to measure the center of a set of data |

Variability | The amount of dispersion of scores about some central value |

Frequency Distribution | Indicates number of individuals that receive each possible score on a variable. An arrangement of a set of scores from lowest to highest indicates the number of times each score was obtained. Often graphically depicted |

Pie Chart | Graphic display of data in which frequencies or percentages are represented as"slices" of pies |

Bar Graph | Using bars to depict frequencies of responses, percentages, or means in two or more groups. Allow researchers to compare groups. When reading this it is important to note the range and size of scale values. |

Frequency Polygon (Line Graph) | A graphic display of a frequency distribution in which the frequency of each score is plotted on the vertical axis, with the plotted points connected by straight lines |

Mode Strength | Adequate if you need a summary statistic in a hurry |

Mode Weaknesses | Not the best measure of central tendency. No additional statistics are based off this Too subject to the vagaries of cases that happen to fall within a sample. In small sample, it may have a frequency only one or two higher than other scores |

Median Strength | It can be determined even if we do not know the value of the of scores at the ends of the distribution. It is not influenced by outliers |

Median Weaknesses | Dependent on position within a distribution |

Mean Strength | The preferred measure of central tendency because further statistical analysis builds on it. The most stable and does not vary much from sample to sample. Balances numerical scores on either side of it. The value of each score matters. |

Mean Weaknesses | The most sensitive to score aberrations A single extreme score has a marked effect on the value. OUTLIER: A score that is way out of line with the rest of the data |

Variance | A measure of the variability of scores about a mean; the mean of the sum of squared deviations from the group mean. |

Standard Deviation | Is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events. In other words, it is a measure of how spread out numbers. It tells us how different scores are from each other. Less variability is better then greater variability. How far from average |

Negatively Skewed Distribution | A distribution with a very few low scores. The mean of it will be deceptively low. OUTLIERS Skew distributions. When working with skewed distribution the median is a better measure of central tendency then the mean. |

Positively Skewed Distribution | A distribution with a few very high scores. The mean of it will be deceptively high . |

Inferential Significance | Statistics designed to determine whether results based on sample data are generalizable to a population |

Statistical Significance (Part One) | Researchers are careful to draw conclusions because they want to make sure an observed difference is not due to chance. Results are accept a 5% likelihood that the results occurred by chance. |

Statistical Significance (Part Two) | To determine a research finding , researchers compare the means of the control group and the experimental group. Using large repersentative examples make finding it more likely because it helps ensure reliable and valid results |

Effect Size (Part One) | The extent to which two variables are associated. In experimental research, the magnitude of the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable. |

Effect Size (Part Two) | When used with statistical significance, it tells more about the quality of the data. Tells you if confounding variables influenced the result of the study. |

Limitations of Psychological Experiments | The laboratories are artificial environments, so behavior might not be applied to the real world. |

Professional Psychological Associations | Requires to minimize infection, illness, and pain in both human and animal subjects. The APA and BPS have developed ethical principles urging investigators to explain the research to participants once the study is completed |

Proposal | Required to be detailed, how participants will be recruited, identify the benefits they will receive, identify exactly what will happen to them, identify any possible negative consequences |

Internal Review Board | A group of educated people who consider the ethics involved in any study involving human participants. Everyone must agree that the procedure will not cause any long term harm to the participants before it is approved |

Informed Consent | Is a piece of paper that explains everything that will happen in the study. Participants sign the consent form, which indicates that they read and understood the study |

Respect for Persons (Autonomy) | Principle that individuals in research investigators are capable of making a decision whether to partcipate |

Beneficence | Principle that research should have beneficial effects while minimizing harmful effects. |

Justice | Principle that all individuals and groups should have fair access to the benefits of the research participation as well as potential risks of research participation |

Confidentiality | Keep participant information private. Individual participants should not be identified through any kind of process of elimination |

Anonymity | Participating in a study without providing identifying information |

Descriptive Methods | which describe behaviors, case studies, surveys or naturalistic obersvation |

Correlational Methods | which associate different factors |

Experimental Methods | which manipulate factors to discover their effects |