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VME Horses

Introduction and Physical Examination

QuestionAnswer
Equine Wellnes Program Goals (5) Promote the welfare of equine patients; decrease the incidence of morbidity/mortality; adress public health corcners; should be defined in accordance needs and expectations
Role of Veterinarian (3) Resource for management practices; prevention of infectious disease and parasite control; and client education
Horses per state- how many in US? Abt 9 million horses in the US, The three biggest states are TX, CA, and FL. Florida has a huge winter show circuit so alot of importing occurs.
Who is the horse industry? Horse racing (largest economic impact); QHA (reining, roping, pleasure); Hunter Jumper, Dressage, Eventing, Pleasure Riding
Thoroughbred Industry in Florida- FTBOA, FTFM, OBS FTBOA (Florida Throuroughbred Breeders and Owners' Association) estb 1945 publishes Wire to Wire and The Florida; FTFM (Florida Thoroughbred Farm Managers) and OBS (Ocala Breeder Sales) big weanling sale, people come from all over the country
Thoroughbred Industry- Tracks (4) Calder Race Course, Gulfstream Park, Hialeah Park, and Tampa Bay Downs
Goals of Extension Link between Academia and Industy, Disseminate knowledge and techology, its a two way street
Physical Examination is done- (4) By system, always using the same approach, recording the findings, and looking at the whole picture
PE- Observation from a distance Look at Individual difference, is it affected by illness/pain, depending on environment does behavior change throughout the day. Is it eating, drinking, pooping and urinating.
PE- Attitude Is it depressed, in pain, weak? Possible cerebral dysfunction.
PE- Looking at posture Anything deviating from the norm, weakness, neurologic condition, pain could be casued by laminitis, navicular, arthritis
Laminitis Horse doesn't want to bear any weight on ties, is a musculoskeletal problem, can cause shrinking of the bone or can cause the bone to rotate.
Sawhorse stance can mean tetanus
Body Condition rating from 1 (poor) to 9 (extremely fat)
Upon Close Examination check for- Symmtrey, assymtry can result from musculoskeletal injury or nerve damage. Look at the skin- qulaity of har coat, presence of skin lessions, lacerations/scars. Sweating could be annydrousis
Skin diseases- ppid, warts, nodular disease ppid- equine cushings, excessive cortisol in the system, warts on the face, nodular disease is lymphoma.
Head Star exam here, horses like to say hi-Position, facial expression, movemnt, symmetry, precussion (sinuses), palpation of the facial pulse, palpation of submandibular lymph nodes (only set of lymph nodes can palpate on healthy horse.)
Eyes Vision, position and size of globes, ocular movements, position ofpupil, pupilarry light reflex (PLR), color of the sclera and conjuctiva. Ocular pain pain, presenc of masses ect.
Ocular pain could mean epiphora, blephospasm, photophobia.
Nose Can indicate sign of disease in respitory tract. Look at movement of nostrils (symmetry, response of stimuli) Nasal discharge?, Odor, Nasal airflow should be equal. Noise during respiration
Mouth- Mucus membrane hsould be a normal pale pink, moist an dhave a CRT of about 2 secs. Look for the prescence of ulcers, petechiae
Neck lok at muscle tone and ease of movement
Throat latch- palpate the lymph nodes and thyroid, look for sweeling
Judular veins- check from thrombosis, refill, distension and the presence of a pulse
Thorax- Normal lung sounds are barely aduible, with a respiratory rate at rest of 12-24 breaths per minute. Sometimes will bag a horse to make a horse breath deeper.
Heart Normal heart sounds are audible behind elbows, always want to listen to both. There are four sounds, but usually two (lub dub). Heart rate at rest should be 40 beats per minute with loud, clear and regular beat
Abdomen- 4 quandrants- top and bottom on both sides, intestinal motility
Pot belly is a sign of poor nutrtion, parasites, poor muscle mass on back
Distencsion of the abdomen could be caused by gas or fluid, it will sound loud and fluidy
Male external genitalia visual examination and palpationof testes, prepuce and penis
mammary gland visual examination, palpation- look for enlargement, lactation, and sensitivity
Hind Quarters- Tail (tone and position), Anus , Vuvla (conformation and discharge)
Horsese rectal temp- 99-101.5
Limbs- (7) Conformation, Swelling, Pain, Range of motion of joints, heat, pulse, and feet
Gait- Coordination, lameness canlead to be an uneven gait
Created by: kccroy