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Bio Anthro Ch.3

Physical Anthropology 11th edition

TermDefinition
bioinformatics A discipline dedicated to the analysis of genetic information and the practical use of that information.
carrier A person who possesses a recessive allele in the heterozygous condition.
chromosomal aberration Abnormal chromosome number or chromosome structure.
chromosomal sex The number of X and Y chromosomes a person has. The chromosomal sex of a person with two X chromosomes is a female. The chromosomal sex of a person with one X and one Y chromosome is a male.
cloning The process of asexual reproduction in an otherwise multicellular animal.
codominant The situation in which, in the heterozygous condition, both alleles are expressed in the phenotype.
deletion A chromosomal aberration in which a chromosome breaks and a segment is not included in the second-generation cell. The genetic material on the deleted section is lost.
Down syndrome Condition characterized by a peculiarity of eyefolds, malformation of the heart and other organs, stubby hands and feet, short stature, and mental retardation; result of extra chromosome 21.
duplication Chromosomal aberration in which a section of a chromosome is repeated.
enzyme A molecule, usually a protein, that makes a chemical reaction happen or speeds up a slow chemical reaction. It is not itself altered in the reaction.
epigenetic changes Inherited changes (from one cell to another, or from one generation to another) in a phenotype without changing the DNA base sequence.
epigenome The overall epigenetic state of a cell, with a complete description of the epigenetic modifications of the DNA in that cell.
erythroblastosis fetalis A hemolytic disease affecting unborn or newborn infants caused by the destruction of the infant's Rh1 blood by the mother's anti-Rh antibodies.
eugenics The study of the methods that can improve the inherited qualities of a species.
gene therapy A genetic-engineering method in which genetic material is manipulated in ways that include removing, replacing, or altering a gene.
genetic counselor A medical professional who advises prospective parents or a person affected by a genetic disease of the probability of having a child with a genetic problem.
genetic engineering The altering of the genetic material to create specific characteristics in individuals.
genetic sex In humans, male sex is determined by the presence of the SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome. Persons who lack the Y chromosome, and hence the SRY gene, or who possess an abnormal allele of the SRY gene, are genetically female.
genome All of the genes carried by a single gamete.
gonad General term used for an organ that produces sex cells; the ovary and testis.
hemolytic disease Disease involving the destruction of blood cells.
hemophilia A recessive X-linked trait characterized by excessive bleeding due to a faulty clotting mechanism.
inversion Form of chromosome aberration in which parts of a chromosome break and reunite in a reversed order. No genetic material is lost or gained, but the positions of the involved alleles are altered.
Klinefelter syndrome A sex-chromosome count of XXY; phenotypically male, tall stature, sterile.
linkage groups Sets of genes that are found on the same chromosome.
multiple alleles A situation in which a gene has more than two alleles.
negative eugenics Method of eliminating deleterious alleles from the gene pool by encouraging persons with such alleles not to reproduce.
nondisjunction An error of meiosis in which the members of a pair of chromosomes move to the same pole rather than moving to opposite poles.
pedigree A reconstruction of past mating in a family, expressed as a diagram.
phenotypic sex The sex that a person is judged to be, based on his or her physical appearance. Phenotypic sex may not correspond to chromosomal sex.
phenylketonuria (PKU) A genetic disease, inherited as a recessive, brought about by the absence of the enzyme responsible for the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine.
polymorphism The presence of several distinct forms of a gene or phenotypical trait within a population with frequencies greater than 1 percent.
positive eugenics Method of increasing the frequency of desirable traits by encouraging reproduction by individuals with these traits.
regulatory gene A segment of DNA that functions to initiate or block the function of another gene.
restriction enzyme Enzyme used to "cut" the DNA molecule at specific sites; used in recombinant DNA technology.
Rh blood-type system A blood-type system consisting of two major alleles. A mating between an Rh2 mother and Rh1 father may produce in the infant the hemolytic disease erythroblastosis fetalis.
sex-limited gene Non-sex-linked allele that is expressed is only one of the sexes.
stem cells Undifferentiated cells with the potential to become many types of adult specialized cells.
structural gene A segment of DNA that codes for a polypeptide that has a phenotypic expression.
Tay-Sachs disease Enzyme deficiency of lipid metabolism inherited as a recessive; causes death in early childhood.
translocation Form of chromosomal mutation in which segments of chromosomes become detached and reunite to other nonhomologous chromosomes.
trisomy The state of having three of the same chromosome, rather than the normal pair. For example, trisomy 21, or Down syndrome, is a tripling of chromosome number 21.
Turner Syndrome Genetic disease characterized by 45 chromosomes with a sex chromosome count of X–; phenotypically female, but sterile.
Created by: Ian Aitchison