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Nursing Restraint

Restraint and Handling of Animals Chapter 1

What is the most obvious reason for restaint of an animal? To control it for an examination or a procedure.
Restraint for the purpose of physical examination or diagnostic or therapeutic procedures commonly performed on animals may be unpleasant for them, and most animals will attempt to escape or at least resist.
A dog pricks its ears forward when dominant or actively aggressive, whereas a submissive dog wrinkles and flattens it ears.
Cats with their ears pinned back should be considered dangerous.
What is a tapetum? It allows domestic animals except pigs to be able to see at night. It is a special layer behind the lens.
How do domestic animals focus? By the means of muscles controlling the shape of the lens.
Cats have excellent night vision, which is consistent with their nocturnal habits.
The sense of touch is becoming more important in the handling of animals? Behaviorists and trainers recommend that handlers touch horses on different parts of their bodies as a way of enhancing communication with them.
Dominant animals use biting, scratching, kicking, or striking to teach their young proper behavior. Dogs have been observed to bit or hold the scruffs of puppies' necks, hold muzzles, or force them prone by the application of weight over the withers as a show of dominace if their behavior is unacceptable.
Horses kick or slam a shoulder into other horses to demonstrate dominance and make a point of their supremacy.
What is an agonistic behavior? Those that are associated with conflict.
What is the range of agonistic behaviors? They range from passive avoidance through the assertion of dominace to the extreme of aggression and fighting.
What do dominance and submissive behaviors represent? The more common method of resolving disagreement over things such as territory and favors.
Aggressive Behavior? Is the form of agnositic or conflict behavior that lead to and includes fighting.
Irritability Induced or Pain Induced Aggression? Injections and certain manipulations, such as treatment of wounds cause pain and discomfort that animals may resent. The state of mind of the patient has alot to do with the potential for aggressive behavior.
Maternal Aggression? All female domestic animals that are suckling their young are sensitized to interference with their offspring by strangers.
Predatory Aggression? Aggressive activity displayed by chasing and killing prey is observed in predatory domestic animals, such as the dog and cat.
Territorial Aggression? Dogs that harass the mail carrier or meter reader are acting within the norm of canine behavior. The female rabbit is strongly territorial in the captive situation, if a buck is taken to her cage she will attack him aggressively.
Fear Induced Aggression? When an animal is terrified of an environment and the people in it and is not given an option to avoid the circumstances, it will resort to aggression.
Fear Biting? The most commonly encountered type of attack in veterinary hospitals.
Classic signs of being intimidated are: Avoiding eye contact with head down, lips pulled back horizontally, ears flattened, and tail between the legs.
Intermale Aggression? Aggression occuring between males.
Typical Behavior of Domestic Animals in Aggression and Avoidance
Cattle: Diary breed bulls like the Jersey and Holstein should be considered the most dangerous animals of all the species that vet personnel are asked to restraint.
Bulls, particularly the diary breeds, should always be treated with the utmost respect and with the appropriate means of restraint and contaiment. Aggressiveness in the heifer and cow seems to be directly related to the breed and socialization. Diary cows are generally very docitle because they get handled so much.
Calves: Calves are inquisitive and will become very attentive to the presence of someone new. The approach toward a calf should be slow and deliberate with the hands slightly away from the sides fo the body.
Cats: Aggressive behavior in cats should never be underestimated. It should be remembered that cats stalk their prey and run only short distances to pounce. The are stealth aggressors.
What should be remembered about cats? They stalk their prey and run only short distances to pounce. They are stealth aggressors.
When handling a cat in any environment what should be done? All doors and windows should be closed to prevent escape.
Dogs: Overtly aggressive behavior in dogs is a significant social problem and one that will present difficulties for veterinary personnel.
What is important in communication between 2 dogs in a conflict situation? Dominance and submission.
What are some signs that a dog will present in a submissive role? Lowering the front end down, avoiding eye contact, and the tail may be between the legs; the dog may squat and urinate and defecate.
Horses: Blatant aggressiveness in horses is not common.
Which type of horses show the most aggression? Racehorses, horses that are stalled all the time and breeding stallions.
What are some characteristics of an aggressive horse? Lunging forward and biting, kicking with hind legs, and striking with the front legs.
How should one not approach a horse? The approach should not be made from the blind spot.
Pigs: Aggressive behavior in domestic pigs has serious economic and physical consequences. Adult boars that are mixed together will circle and threaten each oher with grunts and jaw snapping.
Sheep: Avoidance behavior in sheep is the basis of maneuvering the flock.
What is Management Ethology? Ethology is the study of animal behavior. Capture, handling, and restraint is called management ethology.
What are some techquenics for restrainting a horse? Grasping the tail may discourage some horses from kicking. The handler should stand on the side of the horse. A halter is very important. Control of the head is the key to restraint of a horse lying in lateral recumbency.
What are some technquics for restraining cattle? Tailing may be used to push a cow ahead in the alley.
What is tailing? Tailing is simply grasping the tail in the middle and twisting it forward onto the cows back.
What are some examples of swine restraint? A fence or panel may be used to haze them, and also provides protection for the handler.
What is a hog snare? A hog snare is an adjustable metal cable loop at the end of a rigid handle.
Capture and Restraint of Dogs:
What are two types of Behaviors in dogs that are being restrained? Avoidance with submissiveness when cornered and avoidance until cornered and then aggression, also know as fear biting.
What should you watch for on a dog? The ears, eyes, and the face.
Why is the back of the hand better than the palm of the hand when introducing yourself to a dog? It is less threatening than an open palm and the fingers are out of the way and the dog will be less likely to get the entire hand if the dog bites.
The first step to catching a dog is by the neck. A lead rope with a slipknot can be tossed over a dogs head but sometimes a rope or cable snare is required.
What are the best ways of lifting a dog onto the exam table? Grasping on either side of the thorax to lift small dogs. Putting the arms around the front chest and behind the rump.
How can large dogs be lifted onto an exam table? Large dogs can be lifted by means of the forklift technique, placing arms behind the elbows and in front of the hind legs. Two people may be required, one person at the head and the second perosn at the hind end of the dog.
How should a dog be restrained on the table for exams? The degree of restraint depends on the procedure. The front legs and back legs should be controlled at all times.
What is the best form of restraint that is commonly used? Is to have the handlers arms eiher behind the rump or under the flank and in front of the chest, pulling the dog inward in much the same manner as lifting.
What should the dog not do while being restrained for venipuncture? A dog must not be allowed to move during venipuncture because movement results in perivascular placement of the needle.
What is the most painful part of venipuncture? When the needle pierces the skin and the vessel, this is when restraint must be secure.
What is the holder doing during restraint? The holder must restrain the dogs's body, present the forelimb and occlude the vein to allow it to fill and be recongnized inder the skin.
How do you restrain a large dog on the floor for venipuncture? By kneeling or squating behind the large dog that is sitting on the floor.
How should one hold for jugular venipuncture? By placing the dog's front at the edge of the table and having the legs over the edge. The tech will grab the front legs and pull down, with the other hand they will secure the head.
How should a dog be place for saphenous venipuncture? The dog is rolled from sternal recumbency to lateral recumbency, and the holder stands behind the dog holding the front legs and securing the head with one arm and stabilizing and holding off the vein of the back leg with the other hand.
Describe how a dogs mouth can be restrained manually? By bringing the hands forward from the rear on both sides of the face.
Give examples of other forms of muzzles? Gauze or rope muzzles can be made if neccessary. Nylon rope choke leads are sometimes handy as muzzling devices for snapy dogs.
Which Breed of dogs is the most difficult to muzzle and what kind of muzzle works best? Brachiocephalic dogs, a gauze muzzle may be used.
What kind of gags are used veterinary medicine? A simple wooden dowel may be press toward the back of the mouth. The commerical spring mouth gag has a hole on either side of the mouth for a variety of procedures. A syringe case will work as well, especially for use in dental work.
What is the most common mobility limiting devices? The Elizabethan collar.
What is the concept for mobility limiting devices? The concept is to place some type of stiff material extending from the collar area to the dogs nose so that it cannot chew or lick it's body.
Capture and Restraint of Cats:
Catching cats: A cat that is trapped may respond with flattened ears, hissing, scratching, and biting at hands.
What equiment should be used for catching a angery cat? Heavy leather gloves or a large towel may be used to subdue these cats in the same manner for small dogs.
Where should you hold a cat? Grasp the scruff of the neck to lift the cat.
How should cats be caught by the neck with a rope or snare? A rope is thrown over the cat and then quickly passed between the cage bars, close the front of the cage. The cat is then brought to the front of the cage by the noose.
How should you carry a cat? Cats feel most secure in close quarters so for the purpose of carrying a cat, its hindquarters are placed under the elbow area and pressed securely to the holders body with the forearm. Cats should also be carried in a cat carrier or a cat box.
Restraint for Venipuncture: Jugular veinpuncture may be more appropraite for some cats because the hold restrains the head and forefeet more securely than the cephalic technique.
What should be done with persistant cats? Wrap their hind feet in a towel.
What is a way to restrain the head of a cat? The head is held with the hand over the top of the head and the jaw or zygomatic arch is grasped with the thumb on one side and two or 3 on the other side.
What is the best way to position a cat for saphenous venipuncture? Stretching the cat into a lateral recumbency.
Restraint of Exoctic Animals: Minimal handling of all exotic animals is recommended and must be done efficiently, quietly and confidently. The importanceof fast, competent handling cannot be overemphasized.
What stresses out exotics? The sights, sounds, smells, and temperatures of the strange enviornment will stress the exotic animals in a veterinary hospital.
Psittacines: When handling and examining a psittacine patient, the medical team should avoid the strong beak, jaws, wings, and feet.
Passerines: These birds (Canaries and Finches) are easily stressed under normal conditions and even more sensitive when they are ill.
Raptorial Species: With them, it is of utmost important for the handler to secure the talens. Equipment needed for restraining raptors includes towels or drapes, gloves of appropriate size and thickness, and hoods.
Turtles and Tortosises: Restraint should be done with caution.
How should turtles be approached? Many turtles are quick and therefore should be approached from the rear, with the tail and legs securely held. Simply covering the head, neck, and forelimbs with a cloth towel is usually adequate to prevent injury or harm to handler.
Snakes: The general approach to restraint any snake is to immobilize the head and grasp it firmly with the hands at the base of the skull.
What equipment is needed to restrain a snake? It may include plexiglas sheilds, plexiglas tubes, tongs, canvas bags, or drapes, snake hook, gas anesthetic machine, and plastic bags.
What is the wrong way to grab a snake? They should not be picked up by their tails to prevent degloving injuries and automoization.
Lizards and Crocodilians: May be restrained by using a combination of experienced hands and snare poles, towels, drapes, nooses, or plexiglas sheilds.
How should one approach a lizard? The approach to lizards is to attempt to block their vision with a towel or sheet of paper, make a quick grab around the shoulder girdle at the base of the skull with one hand, and restrain the pelvic girdle with the other hand.
Restraint of Rabbits: Their bones are small and light for animals their size.
What is the proper restraint of rabbits? Rabbits have powerful back legs. One should control the back legs to prevent a "broken back." Never pick a rabbit or restrain it by the ears.
How do you carry a rabbit? To carry a rabbit short distances, grasp the nape of the neck with one hand while supporting the rear legs with the other.
What is the best way to place a rabbit in a cage? Is by holding its skin fore and aft, placing it well inside the cage facing the outward, and pressing its body down to the floor for a few moments before releasing it.
Why should you put a towel or blanket on the exam table when examining a rabbit? Rabbits don't like slick surfaces and loosing their footing agitates them.
How do you trim a rabbits toe nails? Pressing the rabbit to the table and pulling the hindfeet to the rear allows access to the nails. The nails of the forefeet may be trimmed by lifting one foot at a time off the table while the rabbit is held to the surface.
Restraint of Rodents and Small Mammals: Rodents and small mammals can be problematic to examine and treat because restraint without injuring such animals is difficult. These animals are very small and bite under stressful situations.
How should small mammals be picked up? Both hands should be used to pick the animal up, with the finger underneath and the thumbs on top of the body. Grasping the scruff of the neck and supporting the back legs provide restraint for larger animals.
A large rodent that is standing on the examination table can also be retrained by wrapping a towel around its torso. The quinea pig tolerates being placed upside down in a trough with the legs tied down in the same fashion as swine.
Created by: BananaGirl05



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