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Anthro sec.3part.1

Making a Living and Economic Behavior

QuestionAnswer
What is an economy? A system of resource production, distribution, and consumption.
What are the five adaptive strategies? Foraging, Horticulture, Agriculture, Pastoralism, Industrialism
Foragers are.. Mobile Hunter gatherers. Rely on nature and natural resources to make a living. Typically band societies.
Horticulture is... Non intensive shifting cultivation, with the use of simple tools. Kinship based organization
"slash and burn" is a technique used by which adaptive strategy? Horticulture
Agriculture is... Intensive farming with more complex tools. Ranked societies with stratified social systems.
Pastoralism is... The breeding and management of herds and domesticated animals. Kinship social system.
pastoral nomadism The entire group (including women and children) move with the animals throughout the year.
Transhumance Only part of the group moves with the animals, while most of the group stays in the village.
What is a mode of production? A way of organizing production.
What are the two different modes of production? Industrial and non industrial.
What motivates economic behavior in Industrial societies? Economizing and Maximizing
What is economizing? The allocation of scare resources among alternative ends.
What is maximizing ? Gaining the largest margin of profit.
What motivates economic behavior in non industrial societies? Alternative ends
What are the five alternative ends? Subsistence funds, Replacement funds, Social funds, Ceremonial funds, Rent funds.
How are economies organized in different societies? Distribution and exchange
What are the three exchange systems? Market Principle, redistribution, and reciprocity.
What is the market principle? Buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand
What is redistribution? Flow of gods from local level to center, then back out to community.
What is reciprocity? Exchange among social equals
What are the three types of reciprocity? Generalized, Balanced, Negative.
What is generalized reciprocity? unequal exchange among closely related individuals
What is an example of generalized reciprocity? Parental gifts; i.e giving something to another person and expecting nothing concrete or immediate in return.
What is Balanced reciprocity? equal exchange among more distantly related individuals
What is an example of balanced reciprocity? In a horticulture society: A man presents a gift to someone in another village. The recipient may be a cousin. The giver expects something in return.
What is negative reciprocity? One sided, potentially hostile exchanges among strangers.
what is the potlatch? Competitive feast on North Pacific Coast of North America. Give away food and blankets for prestige.
Created by: 200235332
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