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GI

QuestionAnswer
Peristalsis Movement in esophagus to gravitate food towards stomach
Gastrointestinal system pertains to: esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, salivary/mouth/teeth, bile/liver, pancreas
What does the GI tract do? Moves and digests food; secretes enzymes to digest and absorb nutrients
Parts of the GI system mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Accessory organs pancreas, liver, gall bladder, salivary glands, anal sacs
Mouth: Teeth/peridontium
Tongue moves masticated food to the back of the throat in order to swallow food bolus
Papillae Tastebuds
Other parts of the mouth gingivia, lips, cheeks, palates
Mouth normals smooth, pink, white teeth, CRT>2 seconds
Mouth abnormals gingivitis, plaque, tartar, epuli, tumors, stomatitis, ulcers
Pharynx cavity in the caudal oral cavity that joins respiratory and GI systems (throat)
Esophagus smooth muscle tube attached from mouth to stomach; carries masticated food to stomach for digestion
Esophagus normals smooth, even diameter, light pink, seen on x ray ventral in the cervical region and crosses dorsally to the trachea in the thorax
Esophagus abnormals strictures, mega-E, tumors
Stomach starts at esophagus, internally covered in rugae to increase surface area; has mucus secreting cells to protect it from digesting itself; secretes enzymes; contracts and squeezes to crush and mechanically digest food
Rugae gastric folds in stomach
Stomach enzymes HCL, pepsin, intrinsic factor, gastrin
Acetylcholine Stimulates the release of HCL and other digestive enzymes
3 portions of stomach fundus, body, pyloric antrum
Pyloric sphincter keeps food in the stomach, lets food out and into small intestines
Small intestines attached to pyloris of stomach; held in place by mesentary; has 3 portions
3 portions of small intestine duodendum, jejunum, ileum
Duodendum 1st part of small intestine; secretory section releases enzymes to increase gastric motility; paired with pancreas
Jejunum longest part of the small intestine; absorption portion
Ileum Attaches small intestine to large intestine; vital for absorbing vitamin B12 and absorbing bile
Small intestine normals smooth, consistant diameter, rhythmic peristalsis, light pink colour, has small villi to increase surface area
Small intestine abnormals intussusception; ulcers; allergies; lack of villi
Large Intestine parts cecum, colon, rectum, anus
Cecum small, coiled, blind-ended pouch located at the junction of the ileum (In large animals serves as fermentation chamber)
Colon where most of absorption occurs; has 3 parts; ascending/transverse/descending; liquid feces enters via ileum and water is absorbed; actively secretes bicarbonate and potassium; has intricate folds; contains millions of bacteria
Rectum caudal portion of large intestines; storage area for feces
Anus caudal opening; contains the anal sphincter muscle
Peritoneum membrane lining the abdominal/pelvic cavities and organs
Paxetal peritoneum layer that lines the cavities
Visceral peritoneum layer that covers organs
Mesentary and Omentum folds of peritoneum that connect stomach/intestines to the abdominal cavity and visceral organs
Mesentary rooted at dorsal aspect of abdominal cavity; attached to both intestines; fan shaped when spread out;keeps intestinal tract from twisting; supplies blood, lymph and nerves via superior and inferior mesentary arteries
Omentum part of mesentary; sheet of fat covered in peritonium; protects abdominal cavity and organs;
Greater omentum attaches to bottom of stomach and folds down over intestines; also attaches to transverse colon
Lesser omentum attaches from top of stomach and goes up under the liver
Liver processes everything that the body eats/drinks/breathes; cleanses blood; regulates body fuel by storing and regulating fats; supplies glucose; manufactures essential proteins; transports substances to the blood; regulates blood clotting
Hormones from liver sex, thyroid, cortisol/adrenal
Liver normals dark red, gall bladder yellow/green; smooth, multi-lobed, clean crisp edges
Liver abnormals black or white colour; spots; edges not clean
Liver failure inability for the body to eliminate toxins; liver sweels, cells die and get replaced with scar tissue; 80% of cells must die before liver fails
Jaundice build-up of bile and toxins resulting in yellowing of skin and mucus membranes
Gallbladder a sac embedded in the liver; holding area for bile; bile gets slowly released from gallbladder into small intestine when needed
Pancreas pancreatic duct enters via duodendum; has both exocrine and endocrine functions; endo-hormones; exo-pancreatic juices with digestive enzymes
Enzymes produced by pancreas trypsin (protein digestion), lipase (fat digestion), amylase (starch digestion)
Salivary glands serve to moisten food to aid in digestion, and to cleanse mouth
How many salivary glands? Four: parotid, mandibular, sublingual, zygomatic
Evaporative cooling animals sweat by panting and through paw pads
Saliva produced in and secreted by glands; cells secrete a fluid with mucus and electrolytes
Saliva cells Acini: empty into collecting ducts where sodium is reabsorbed and potassium/bicarbonate are released
Saliva ducts small ducts lead to larger ducts, larger ducts lead into one large duct that secretes fluid into the mouth
How are salivary glands controlled? Autonomic nervous system
Glands and types of secretions parotid-serous fluid sublingual-mucus fluid mandibular-combination of both
Digestion process of breaking down foods into nutrients via metabolism
Absorption process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system; occurs in small intestine
Villi hair-like projections that help increase the surface area, allowing more nutrients to be absorbed
Created by: Libelle