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Nutrients

VETT 130 small animal nutrients and nutrition

Nutrient Substance derived from food that is used by the body to carry out all of its normal functions.
Essential Nutrients A select group of nutrients that cannot be manufactured in the body from the "building-block" molecules.
Non-essential Nutrients Nutrients that can be synthesized from other sources - (the nutrient can be produced within the organism) Example:
The 6 Categories of Nutrients 1. Water .... 2. Carbohydrates ... 3. Lipids 4. Proteins... 5. Vitamins ..... 6. Minerals
Amount of Water body Needs Healthy inactive animal - 2.5 ml/kg/hr or 60 ml/kg/day
Mammals consist of what percent of water in the body? 70% Newborns - 75 to 80% and Adults - 50 to 60%
A loss of what percent of body water would be fatal without immediate attention? 15%
A loss of what percent of body water can cause serious illness in most mammals? 10%
What percentage of dehydration will show no detectable clinical signs? < 5%
What percentage of dehydration will show clinical signs where the skin being slightly inelastic and doughy? 5 to 7%
What percentage of dehydration will show clinical signs where the skin that has lost elasticity; gums are tacky; eyes are slightly sunken in; animal is subdued 8 to 9%
What percentage of dehydration will show clinical signs where the skin remains "tented" when pinched; eyes are sunken in orbits; gums are dry; capillary refill time of blanched gums is delayed; animal is depressed and weak. 10 to 12%
What percentage of dehydration will show clinical signs where the animal is recumbent and in shock; and death is imminent? 12 to 15%
What is the formula for estimating the amount of replacement fluids? Body weight (kg) x % Dehydration x 1000 = Fluid deficit (ml)
What is the formula for Total Fluid Needs? TF(total fluids) = RF(replacement fluids) + MF(maintenance fluids) + OF (ongoing fluid losses)
The amount of fluid loss is often __________ what you might think. " twice " If dog vomits 50 ml of fluid, actual loss closer to 100 ml
Water is involved in almost all metabolic processes in the body, both intracellular and extracellular. What are some of it's main functions? Lubricant for body tissues, circulatory and transport medium, chemical reactant in digestion(hydrolysis), temperature regulation (sweating, panting), and biochemical reactant of metabolism involved in growth, repair, and maintenance of cells.
Which nutrients provide energy for the body? Carbohydrates Fats Proteins
Of the 3 energy-producing nutrients, which provides about 2.5 as much energy per gram as the other 2
What is the most important nutrient? Why? Oxygen - animal life would cease rapidly without it
What are the building blocks for protein? Amino Acids
What is the composition of proteins?
What percentage range is a cell's mass composed of proteins? 10 to 30%
What are the essential amino acids? Tryptophan, Methionine, Valine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Histidine, Arginine, Taurine, Glycine
What are the dietary sources of protein? Meat, eggs, dairy, soy, cereals, rice, nuts and legumes(protein rich, but not complete)
What are the functions of protein? Building critical structural material like collagen Cell function like with enzymes and hormones Contractile proteins enable muscles cells to move
What is "crude" protein? It is the percentage of protein calculated in a feed based on protein sources which could include meat protein, grain protein or other protein.
What does "biological protein" in feed mean? Biological protein is the amount of absorbable protein that is available for productive body functions - the amount of amino acids available for metabolic processes.
What effect does heating food have on proteins? It denatures proteins.
What is an essential amino acid required by cats? Taurine
What food source provides Taurine in a cat's diet? Meat and fish
The energy content of proteins is...
What are the 3 major categories for carbohydrates? Sugars Starches Cellulose
What dietary sources are sugars derived from? Fruits, sugar cane, honey, milk, and sugar beets monosaccharides and disaccharides
What dietary sources are starches derived from? Grains, root vegetables, and legumes polysaccharides
What dietary is cellulose derived from? Found in most vegetables polysaccharides
What is the primary function of carbohydrates? To provide energy for body functions.
What is considered to be the main fuel for the body? ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate
What is the difference between soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in dogs and cats?
Where does glucose come from? Glucose is derived from the body "breaking down" carbohydrates.
What cells of the body rely almost exclusively on glucose for their energy needs? Red blood cells and neurons
Where is glucose stored and in what form? Glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the liver.
What is does Vitamin K help the body do? Allows blood clotting protein formation.
Created by: shasta05