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World Religions

Study stack for the first midterm

TermDefinition
Smart's Dimensions Experiential, Ritual, Mythological, Doctrinal, Ethical, Social
Durkheim Founder of Modern sociology. Focused on how religion creates a community for its adherents instead of what it taught.
Geertz Cultural Anthropologist. Focused on the system of symbols created by religion.
Aryans Created the Vedas (1500 to 500 BCE)
Shruti That which was heard Vedas
Smirti That which is remembered Epics (history) Puranas (ancient stories) Dharmashastras (codes of law and ethics)
Ascetic A person who practices severe self-discipline and abstention
Dharma (Hindu) 'Duty' 'Religion' 'Law' 'Ethics' 'Truth' Context sensitive depending on social position and stage of life
Samsara A continuing cycle of death and rebirth (reincarnation)
Karma Action, especially ritual action Cause and Effect
Brahman (Vedic) - Supreme Being, Ultimate Reality Cannot be described because it pervades and transcends human thought and the universe
Atman Human soul
Moksha Spiritual Liberation and Personal Salvation
Vedas and Vedic Religion The "Book of Knowledge" Oral traditions held by Brahmans Samhitas (collections) Brahmanas (instructions for performance of rituals) Aranyakas (forest treaties) Upanishads (secret philosophical treaties)
Vedas - Rta Cosmic Order - Highest power Not even the gods can go against the power of rta
Vedas - Rig Veda Stories about the gods and the creation of the world Three prominent deities: Agni, Somi, Indra Indra: King of the gods, Thunder Warrior Deity
Vedas - Purusha Sukta Provides a description of the cosmic being that the entire cosmos is created from and causes time to flow. The universe was created by a sacrifice of Purusha
Upanishads Discusses several important philosophical ideas that are central to later Hinduism
Ramayana 3rd Century BCE - 3rd Century CE A tale of dharma Prescription for code of conduct to create the ideal society
Ramayana - Rama The ideal man/king Embodiment of dharma
Ramayana - Sita the ideal woman/wife Forces Rama to uphold his dharma
Mahabharata One of the Epics Contains the Bhagavad - Gita 4th Century BCE - 4th Century CE
Bhagavad Gita Dharma of a warrior Story of Arjun's crisis and Krishna's teaching Atman(self), Brahman(ultimate reality), Yoga (discipline), Karma(action), Jnana (knowledge), Bhakti (devotion)
Bhagavad Gita - Krishna Teaches the relationship between the body, atman, and Brahman Goal in life is the identify oneself with Brahman Focus on desire-less action, and action for the sake of fulfilling one's dharma Avatar of Vishnu - the Preserver
Bhagavad Gita - Arjuna Feels conflicted and questions the necessity of fighting against his own kin and friends. Asks the questions for the reader to Krishna
Bhagavad Gita - Yogas (three kinds) Path to achieving the goal of identifying oneself with the Brahman Karma yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhaki yoga
The Triad Brahma (creator) Vishnu (preserver) Shiva (destroyer)
The Triad - Shiva The destroyer Famous for relationship with Parvati
The Triad - Vishnu The Preserver Consort: Lakshmi Preservation of cosmos and proper order Multiple avatars
The Triad - Brahma The Creator Consort: Saraswati
Devi/ Goddess Unmarried, independent, autonomous Can be mild or wild
Shakti (including examples of wild and mild goddesses) Primordial cosmic energy and represents the entire dynamic forces that are thought to move the entire unvierse. Personification of divine feminine creative power. Mostly manifests through female embodiment and creativity/fertility.
Puja "Worship" - an act of respectful honoring Performed by everyone at many locations
Prasada Material substance of food often used as religious offerings
Darshan "seeing and being seen" A deity gives darshan to devotees who receive it
Murti an image or statue of the divine, sculptured images are anthropomorphic
Ganesh Remover of all obstacles son of parvati and shiva
Stages of Life Student, Householder, Hermit, Wandering Ascetic
Aims of Life Purushartha, four aims of life Dharma Artha Kama Moksha
Aims of Life - artha Wealth and Power to achieve one's goals
Aims of Life - kama Sexual desire, and Longing
Aims of Life - moksha Liberation from Samsara
Aims of life - dharma Duty
Laws of Manu Manu is the name of a king and is the mythological ancestor of the Human race. The Laws are descriptions and prescriptions of dharma
Main Sects - Shaiva Reveres Shiva as the main supreme god
Main Sects - Vaishnava Reveres Vishnu and his avatars
Man Sects - Shakta Reveres Devi as the main supreme god
Bhakti Devotion to god 6th Century CE in South India, 12th Century CE in West India Intense emotional love for a personal god Implies a sense of close engagement with other people
Bhakti - Mirabai Most famous poet-saint of north India Devoted to Krishna from childhood Could not be killed because of protection from Krishna
Mantra Sacred sound or syllable believed to have spiritual and psychological value
Three jewels/Refuges Buddha, Dharma, Sangha
Three Jewels - Buddha "Awakened" One Model of the awakening of consciousness to what is truly real
Three Jewels - Dharma The teachings of buddha over the 45 year period after his awakening Embodied in a series of scriptures
Three Jewels - Sangha Monastic Community Critical to the Spread of the dharma Sangha is a refuge from the world of desires Mission to preserve, study, and transmit the Dharma
Legend of Buddha Legend draws together many stories of Buddha's life. Not a biography nor a scripture. Used to model the path that all follow to enlightenment Corresponds to "mythological" dimension Set in period of vedas: focus on maintaining cosmic order and dharma
Shakyamuni The Original Buddha who created all the teachings of Buddhism
Jainism Spiritual movement that seeked full liberation from the cycle of birth and rebirth
Three Marks of Reality - Dukkha "Suffering" Things/events serve as occasions on which suffering arises Not that all life is suffering, but suffering is inevitable following happiness
Three Marks of Reality - Anitya "Impermanence" Everything that arises must pass including consciousness No permanent being (contrasting atman in Hinduism)
Three Marks of Reality - Anatman No persistent and continuous selfhood What we experience as self is a combination of experiences The perception of the "self" is a construct of experience
Four Noble Truths One truth expressed as four 1. All life entails suffering 2. Suffering is caused by desire 3. Removing desire removes suffering 4. The way to remove suffering is the eightfold path
Bodhisattva Original: one who vows to seek enlightenment Mahayana: a person who vows to serve and save all suffering beings (has 6 perfections) Open to monks and laity alike
Lotus Sutra Portrays Theravada as completed in mahayana Buddha taught lower level and higher level truths
Lotus Sutra - Parable of Burning House A story to illustrate the necessity of "expedient means" A wealthy man has no choice but to lie to his children in order to get them out of a burning house. The man is not guilty of falsehood because he used an "expedient means"
Lotus Sutra - Dragon king's daughter The Dragon king's 8-year old daughter reached the level of no regression in an instant Shows that any being is eligible, of any class, in any time can achieve buddhahood
Amitabha/ Amida Buddha A celestial Buddha worshipped by the Pure Land school
Emptiness (shunyata) Emptiness Identifies the highest insight of the Buddha as regarding all aspects of reality as "empty" Synonymous with "non-self" Whatever you do to others you also do to yourself Teaching is provisional
Trikaya A Mahayana teaching about the nature of reality and the nature of the Buddha
Interdependent Origination All things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions
Expedient Means Whatever is preached is preached for the sake of converting the bodhisattvas Provides legitimacy for innovation in Buddhist doctrine Provides interpretive guide for exploring the dharma Provides pedagogical guide
Ahimsa Compassion To cause no injury and do no harm
Five Precepts Earliest moral code identified five rules applicable to monks and laity alike: Not to destroy life Not to steal Not to commit sexual misconduct Not to lie Not to become intoxicated
Nirvana Theravada holds that nirvana possess reality outside of conditioned arising: one unconditioned reality Mahayan holds that Nirvana is empty of self-nature
Arhat "worthy one" Has attained Nirvanic experience and has been radically transformed by that experience Has completed spiritual training and fully incorporated all factors of the eightfold path Attained within the context of a monastic vow
Mahayana Foundations Development of new scriptures beyond the traditional canon Extension of the principle of "non-self" in far reaching ways Focus on practice on virtue of compassion Less centered on monastic community. Expands the participation of laity
Mahayana Lineages - Pure land Originated in India Most popular form of Buddhism in east Asia Focuses on the veneration of a celestial Buddha
Mahayana Lineages - Zen/Chan Originated in China with separate schools in Japan Focuses on meditation
Mahayana Lineages - Tendai/ Tian Tai Originated in China and prominent in Japan Focus on scriptural study
The Dao Confucianism: Social Order Daoism: Natural order
Tian Heaven The highest figure of veneration in the Zhou Dynasty Confucianism: The ultimate moral force that supports the order
Laozi Legendary author of Daodejin subject of folk-tales and legends
Zhuangzi Poety and Philosopher who wrote the Zhuangzi Promoted complete renunciation of the society
Daodejing A core writing of Daoism by Laozi
Confucius Born into lower noble class; father died Managed to obtain a good education and had diverse administrative career
The Analects A collection of sayings and ideas by Confucius
Junzi Cultivated individual who embodies specific virtues
Rectification of Names Calling objects by their proper names would lead to social order and less chaos
Yin Yang Contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected, interdependent, and give rise to each other
Confucian Virtues - Li Ritual Propriety
Confucian Virtues - Ren Benevolence
Confucian Virtues - Wen Cultivation
Confucian Virtues - Shu Reciprocity
Confucian Virtues - Xiao Filial Piety
Wu Wei Daoism Method to achieve natural order non-action, spontaneous effortless action, fostering the principles of simplicity and weakness
Five Great Relationships States the 5 relationships in which everyone is kind to each other in order to promote social order
Heuristic Definition of Religion Helps the person learn by themselves rather than be taught final statements
Hinduism Defining Characteristics Oldest Living Religion No historical founder No common creed 330 million gods and goddesses Practice takes precedence over belief
330 Million Gods of Hinduism "The one and the many" Constant shifts in power and fluidity to balance order
Saraswati Associated with speech, learning, culture, and wisdom
Lakshmi Associated with prosperity, well being, royal power, and illustriousness
Parvati and Shiva Represents the tension between householder and ascetic ideals
Krishna & Radha Historical hero and god The Divine represented as human Has a love affair with Radha
Hinduism Period - Indus Valley Civilization 2500 - 1500 BCE
Vedic Period 1500 - 500 BCE Rise of Aryan Culture Creation of Vedas
Epic and Puranic Period 500 BCE to 500 CE Composition of Mahabharata and Ramayana Composition of Puranas
Medieval Period 500 CE to 1500 CE Development of bhakti tradition
Modern Period 1500 CE - Present Rise and fall of Mughal and British Empires Origin of India as a nation state
Devas Vedic Gods Many were related to natural phenomena
Vedic People Rites of sacrifice to appease the gods Relationship between men and gods Maintaining cosmic order
Varnas (class/caste system) Origin of the Four Classes Brahmin(priest, scholars) Kshyatriya(warriors, kings) Vaishya(merchants, peasants) Shudra(servants) untouchables
Puranas Ancient stories that are the source of modern devotional Hinduism
Dharmashastra Treaties on the nature of righteousness, moral duty, and law 1st Century CE
Tamil (Bhakti) Poetry Intense emotion related to spectrum of emotions felt in relationships of romantic love Love in separation Ecstatic joy when together
Mahavira final jina Stories describe him as the prince of a royal family, leaves family to pursue spiritual awakening through ascetic practices, seeks to eliminate karma, and attains nirvana at 72, transmits teachings to disciples
Four Sights An old man A diseased man A corpse A "mendicant" (a religious wanderer) which inspires the prince to leave the palace
Middle Way Shakyamuni seeks a "middle way" between sensuality and asceticism after 6 years as an ascetic
Nandabala's Gift Gives Shakyamuni the strength to seek enlightenment
Eightfold path The "middle way" - neighter immersion in sensual pleasures, nor extreme mortification The path is not sequential, not eight steps in order, but eight legs that support the practice It is a path, the path itself is the goal of remaking one's attachment
The Laity adherents to a practice who are not ordained to an official task Householders were important to the sangha from the beginning of Buddhism in some traditions, laypeople can make good progress towards enlightenment, and in other traditions not
Theravada (Three Vehicles) Earliest form of Buddhism to take shape Dominant in South and Southeast Asia Pali Language Focused on the ideal of the arhat Sees itself as the preserver of original teachings
Mahayana (Three Vehicles) Developed in India starting 1st century BCE Dominant form in China, Korea, Japan Chinese Language Focused on the ideal of the bodhisattva Open to innovation and pressed for deeper realization of the central insights of the Buddha
Vajrayana Developed in india by the 7th century CE Dominant form in Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria Tibetan Language scriptures Noted for "esoteric" tradition
Lotus Sutra Lower Level Truth 4 Noble Truths establishes the goal of nirvana achieved by the arhat
Lotus Sutra Higher Level Truth True nirvana achieved at Buddhahood, and all beings can attain this level. Arhats have settled for lesser goal for individual enlightenment
Devadatta Part of the Lotus Sutra Cousin and bitter opponent of the Buddha attempted to kill the Buddha Buddha praises him for helping him attain the 6 perfections of the Buddha
Shan Dynasty 1750 - 1040 BCE Belief in spirits, ancestor worship Highest figure of veneration: Shangdi Oracle bone and the ritual authority of the ruler
Zhou Dynasty 1040-256 BCE Highest Figure of Veneration: Tian (Heaven) Mandate of Heaven - myth of legitimation Warring States Period (Rise of Confucianism and Daoism)
Confucian Solution Re-establish clear hiearchy in society with education Act in accordance with one's place in this hierachy
Daoism characteristics: Namelesness Changelessness Singularity Non-being Weakness In-and-of-itself-ness
Daoism solution restablish order and harmony by realigning oneself with the natural order/Dao
Daoism Idea Sage Perfectly channels the dao
Religious Daoism Quest for immortality Ideas of the afterlife
Created by: sleephe