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Respiratory System


Nasal Cavity site of inhalation and exhalation
Mouth site of inhalation and exhalation
Pharynx back of the throat where nasal and oral cavities meet
Epiglottis tissue that prevents food from entering the trachea
Larynx functions to produce sound and move air
Diaphragm major muscle of breathing
Esophagus muscular tube connecting pharynx and stomach
Tarchea ringed tube for passage of air
Lung organ of breathing
Heart muscle responsible for blood circulation
Bronchi function to move air through the alveoli
Cartilage ring ring that holds open the trachea
Bronchus functions to move air to the alveoli
Bronchiole same as bronchus
Alveoli grape-like clusters where gas exchange in the lungs takes place
Main job of the respiratory system Bring O2 into the body and carry CO2 out
The body needs O2 why? to burn nutrients and produce energy
The byproduct of energy producing reactions CO2
The respiratory system works with what other system Cardiovascular system
How many kinds of respiration are there 2
External respiration occurs In the lungs
Explain external respiration Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the air inhaled into the lungs and blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries
Internal respiration occurs all over the body
Explain internal respiration Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood in the capillaries and the tissues and cells of the body
Secondary Functions of the respiratory system Voice production, body temperature regulation, acid-case balance regulation, sense of smell
Voice production AKA phonation; begins in the larynx; vocal cords vibrate as air passes them causing the basic sounds
Body Temperature regulation Blood vessels under the epithelium of the nasal passages helps warm the air inhaled before it reaches the lungs; helps avoid hypothermia
Panting Cools off an animal; causes increased evaporation of the fluid from the lining of the respiratory passages and mouth which in turn, cools the blood
Acid-Base balance Important homeostatic mechanism; control the body's PH (low=more acidic, high=more alkaline). Respiratory system regulates PH levels by controlling the CO2 in the blood.
The more CO2 in the blood, The lower the PH
How does the respiratory system alter the CO2 in the blood By adjusting how much and how fast air is breathed in and out
Sense of Smell AKA olfactory sense; receptors for sense of smell are located in the nasal passages
Name the two tracts of the respiratory system Upper and Lower
Upper respiratory tract all structures outside of the lungs
Lower respiratory tract all structures within the lungs
Name the parts of the Upper Respiratory Tract nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea
Functions of the larynx voice production, prevents foreign materials from being inhaled, controls airflow to and from the lungs
Endotracheal Intubation Clinical procedure where tube is inserted through the glottis and down into the trachea
Laryngoscope Used to visualize placement of endotracheal tube
Laryngospasm When a cat's glottis is touched and slams shut
Aspiration Pneumonia Inflammatory condition produced by inhalation of foreign material
Prevention of Aspiration Pneumonia Give liquid meds orally at a slow controlled rate to allow animal to swallow; use proper sized tube and inflate the tube
Area where trachea splits Bifurcation
Where does tracheal bifurcation happen The base of the heart
What is the trachea made up of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle held open by cartilage rings, lined with ciliated epithelium
What does the cilia do in the trachea Moves unwanted substances up the trachea to the pharynx where they can be swallowed. Mucous production facilitates the transport and irritates the lining of the trachea to stimulate coughing
Collapsing Trachea Seen in small and overweight dogs, unknown cause; Space between the rings is wider than normal so when dog inhales, the smooth muscle gets sucked down into the lumen of the trachea and blocks. Causes dry honking cough and dyspnea
Structures in the lower respiratory tract Starts with the bronchi, ends with alveolar, and includes all passages in between. Other than the two main bronchi, the structures are inside the lungs
Nostrils Nares
Stenotic nares narrow nasal passages
Septum separation between left and right nasal passages
Palates separates nasal passages from mouth
Turbinates Bones in the nasal passages
Hairs in the nasal passages Cilia
Main function of the nasal passages Condition inhaled air
How are sinus cavities named Named for the bone housing it
What is sinusitis and what causes it inflammation caused by debris
Medical term for throat pharynx
Throat is the common passageway for what two body systems digestive and respiratory
Which is easier for the pharynx to perform breathing
Fight or flight response causes what in bronchi Dilates to allow maximum air exchange
Bronchodialator widens the bronchi
Bronchoconstrictor narrows the bronchi
Hilus Only area of the lung that is fastened in place
Lobes divisions of the lungs
Mediastinum Area between the lungs in the thorax
Bronchial Tree air passages from bronchi to alveolae, divide into smaller passages, bronchi subdivide into bronchioles
Bronchioles subdivide into microscopic alveolar sacs
What controls bronchi autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscle which controls bronchi
Smooth muscles in bronchi function how relaxes during fight or flight allowing airways to dilate to let the greatest amount of air pass back and forth. In relaxed time, the smooth muscle constricts to reduce the airways to normal size
Asthma Inhaled irritants cause severe bronchoconstriction making it hard to breathe; in asthma the bronchial tree becomes overly sensitive to irritants. Most commonly seen as an allergic reaction
Symptoms of asthma wheezing, coughing, dyspnea, cyanosis, panicked attempts to breathe air
Lungs Two lungs together, cone shaped; each has a base, apex and convex lateral surface. Base lies on diaphragm
How many lobes do lungs have Left has two, right has 4 (Horses have no lobes)
Partial vacuum within the thorax, pulls the lungs tightly against the thoracic wall
Pulmonary circulation Blood supply to and from the lungs
Pulmonary artery in the heart From which blood enters the lungs; very dark, contains mostly CO2 and little O2;
Name two LRI pneumonia, bronchitis
Thorax Thoracic cavity or chest cavity
Pluera thin lining inside thoracic cavity and covers organs & structures
Two types of pleura Visceral-covers organs Parietal-covers cavity
Name the contents of the thorax heart, large blood vessels, lymph nodes, nerves, trachea, esophagus, lymphatic vessels
Diaphragm Thin sheet of muscle tat forms the caudal boundary of the thoracic cavity. When it contracts, it flattens and allows enlargement of the volume of the thorax to help with inhalation
Pneumothorax The presence of free air in the thorax
Lung Collapse Caused by air leaking into the thoracic cavity between the walls and the lungs. The vacuum becomes compromised and the lung falls away (collapses) because nothing is holding it in place
Causes of collapsed lung Air coming from outside (wound in thorax) or the lung itself is ruptured
Treatment of pneumothorax Removal of air using chest tube or syringe and needle
Cough Productive (expels fluid/mucous). Usually helpful Non-productive (dry cough) not helpful and usually treated with antitussive cough suppresants
Sneezing Bursts of air directed through the nose and mouth in an attempt to expel irritants
Yawning Slow, deep breath taken through wide open mouth; may be stimulated by slight decrease in O2, or boredom/sleepiness
Sighing Closed mouth, slightly deeper breath. Can be corrective to regulate O2 and CO2 levels. Serves to expend the lungs
Hiccups Spasmotic contractions of the diaphragm accompanied by closure of the glottis. Usually harmless, sometimes associated with nerve irritations, indigestion, CNS damage
Breathing is controlled by respiratory centre of the medula oblongota in the brain
2 ways breathing is controlled Mechanical and chemical
Mechanical control sets the baseline respiratory rate and depth; operates through receptors in the lungs that send nerve impulses to respiratory centre; maintains normal resting rhythmic breathing
Chemical control Monitors the blood and affects breathing if something gets out of control
3 characteristics that are important to control of breathing CO2 content, PH, O2 content
Hypercapnia excessive CO2 in the blood
Hypocapnia decreased CO2 in the blood
Bagging manual control of an anesthetized patient's breathing by squeezing and releasing the bag on the machine; usually causes hyperventilation to release excess CO2
When you stop bagging The decreased CO2 level will cause patient to stop breathing. This causes the CO2 level to come back to normal and the patient should begin breathing again
Hypoxia Low blood oxygen level
What happens in hypoxia the neurons cannot send impulses to the respiratory muscles resulting in a decrease or stoppage in breathing
Acidosis Decreased ventilation causes increased CO2 levels in the blood
Alkalosis Increased ventilation leads to decreased levels of CO2 in the blood
Acidic too much C)2=lower ph
Alkaline too little CO2=higher ph
Low or High blood ph can result in metabolic acidosis or alkalosis
Auscultation act of listening, usually with stethascope
Bubbling sound of popping bubbles that suggests fluid accumulation
Crepitation crackling noises indicative of collapsed or fluid filled alveoli
Decreased lung sounds less or no sound of air movement
Rhonchi high pitched whistling during inspiration (wheezing)
Stridor snoring, squeaking, whistling that suggests airway narrowing
Laryngoscopy visual examination of voice box
Percussion tapping different areas of the body to differentiat between air and fluid presence
Thoracocentesis puncture with needle of the thoracic cavity to obtain fluid from the lung
Tracheal wash collection of fluid/mucous from the trachea via e. tube
Transtracheal wash sterile collection of fluid/mucous from trachea via a catheter through the skin
Trephination Boringa hole into a sinus to establish drainage or to access roots of the teeth
Anoxia absence of oxygen
Aspiration inhalation of foreign substance in URT
Atelectasis incomplete expansion of alveoli in the lungs
Bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
Cyanosis abnormal blue discolouration caused by lack of oxygen
Epistaxis nose bleed
Hemothorax Blood in the thoracic cavity
Laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
Laryngoplegia paralysis of the voice box
Pharyngitis inflammation of throat
Phonation act of producing sound
Laryngospasm sudden fluttering or closure of voice box
Aphonation inability to produce sound
Pleural Effusion abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Effusion fluid escaping from blood/lymph vessels into tissues
Pleuritis Inflammation of the pleura
Pneumonia abnormal lung condition involving inflammation and congestion
Pulmonary Edema accumulation of fluid in the lungs
Pyothorax accumulation of pus in the thoracic cavity
Rhinitis inflammation of nasal mucous membranes
Mucopurolent containing mucous and pus
Rhinorrhea nasal discharge
Tracheitis inflammation of windpipe
Tracheobronchitis inflammation of trachea and bronchi
Chest tube placement hollow device inserted into thoracic cavity to remove fluid or gas
Endotracheal intubation passage of tube through the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to provide airway
Patent open, unobstructed
Laryngectomy surgical removal of larynx
Laryngoplasty surgical repair of larynx
Lobectomy surgical removale of lung lobe
Pharyngoplasty surgical repair of throat
Pharyngostomy surgically create an opening into the throat
Stoma naturally occuring or surgically created opening in the body
Pneumonectomy surgical removal of lung tissue
Sinusotomy surgical incision into sinus
Thorarotomy surgical incision into chest wall
Tracheoplasty surgical repair of windpipe
Tracheostomy surgical creation of an opening in the windpipe
Stenotic nares narrow nasal passages
Functions of the nasal passage House the receptors for smell, warm/filter/humidify air
Nasal Sinuses outpouches of the nasal passages contained within certain skull bones
How many sinuses do animals have 2 frontal and 2 maxillary
Sinusitis nasal sinus passages become plugged with fluid and inflammatory debris
Created by: Libelle



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