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2015- A & M-Term

Terminology

TermDefinition
Anaesthesia: the loss of sensation in part or all of the body, induced by the administration of a drug that depresses the activity of nerves either locally (i.e. peripheral nerves) or generally (i.e. the brain or central nervous system).
General anaesthesia: state of unconsciousness produced by controlled reversible intoxication of the CNS in which there is decreased sensitivity to stimuli from the environment and diminished motor response to such stimuli.
Anaesthetic agent: substance which produces controllable loss of consciousness and absence of motor response to noxious stimuli.
Analgesia: abolition or diminution of the awareness of pain. Analgesic: substance which abolishes or reduces awareness of pain.
Extubate: to remove an endotracheal tube from the patients’ airway. This is normally done in the recovery phase of anaesthesia, once the patient has regained normal control of the airway.
Intubate: to pass an endotracheal tube into the patients’ trachea.
Induction agent: an anaesthetic agent which produces unconsciousness when administered to the patient.
Local anaesthesia: a loss of sensation in a part of the body induced by administering a drug that depresses the activity of nerves supplying that area.
Local anaesthetic: a substance which when applied about the nerve terminals or nerve fibres temporarily prevents conduction of nerve impulses including sensory and motor fibres.
Neuroleptanalgesia: state produced by the administration of a sedative plus an opioid analgesic i.e. sedation plus analgesia. Each component enhances the effect of the other component.
Opioid: substance which produces analgesia and decreased awareness of pain by binding to specific opioid receptors in the brain and the spinal cord.
Sedative: agent used to calm a subject. These agents usually cause drowsiness. The terms tranquillizer, hypnotic and ataractic are often used interchangeably.
Arrhythmia: abnormal or irregular heart rhythm, sometimes called dysrhythmia
Bradycardia: abnormally slow heart rate Cardiac/cardio: referring to the heart e.g. cardiovascular system
Cardiac output: the volume or amount of blood pumped to the tissues by the heart per minute. Normally measured in litres per minute, and is a product of the heart rate (HR) multiplied by the stroke volume (SV).
Diastole: the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle. The pumping chambers of the heart fill with blood during this phase.
Hypertension: abnormally high blood pressure
Hypotension: abnormally low blood pressure
Hypovolaemia: abnormally low circulating blood volume
Myocardium: cardiac tissue, the muscular wall of the heart Perfusion: the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and the removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism from these tissues
Pericardium: the thin fibrous sac surrounding the heart Stroke volume: the amount of blood ejected by a single beat of the ventricle
Systole: the contraction or pumping phase of the cardiac cycle
Tachycardia: abnormally high heart rate
Vasoconstriction: constriction of the muscular walls of the blood vessels resulting in a reduction in intravascular volume
Vasodilation: relaxation of the muscular walls of the blood vessels resulting in an increase in intravascular volume
Created by: Melissa Jones