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Meat&Bones-Skeletal

VETT 118 Romich Text Chapter 3 Vet Med Terms

TermDefinition
Ossification The formation of bone from fibrous tissue.
Osteoblasts Immature bone cells that produce bony tissue.
Osteoclasts Phagocytic cells that eat away bony tissue from the medullary cavity of long bone.
Osteocytes Mature osteoblasts.
Hematopoietic Red bone marrow is this, meaning that it forms RBC's, WBC's, and clotting cells.
Medullary cavity Inner space of bone, containing yellow marrow.
Cartilage Connective tissue that is more elastic than bone.
Articular cartilage Covers the joint surfaces of bone.
Meniscus A curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints that cushions forces applied to that joint.
Articulations Joints. Connections between bones.
Synarthroses Immovable joints.
Amphiarthroses Semimovable joints.
Diarthroses Freely movable joints.
Suture A type of synarthrosis. A jagged line where bones join and form a nonmovable joint. (In the skull.)
Fontanelle Soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures that usually closes after birth.
Symphysis A type of amphiarthrosis. A joint where two bones join and are held firmly together so that they function as one bone. AKA cartilagious joint.
Synovial joints Classified as ball-and-socket joints (enarthrosis or spherioid joints), condyloid joints, trochoid or pivot joints, ginglymus or hinge joints, and gliding joints.
Cortical bone Hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone. AKA compact bone.
Cancellous bone Lighter, less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bones. AKA spongy bone.
Epiphysis Wide end of a long bone, composed of cancellous bone and covered with articular cartilage.
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone, composed mainly of compact bone.
Physis Cartilage segment of lone bone that involves growth of the bone. AKA growth plate or epiphyseal cartilage.
Metaphysis Wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis. Considered part of epiphysis in adults.
Periosteum Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone.
Endosteum Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary cavity.
Long bones Bones consisting of a shaft, two ends, and a marrow cavity.
Short bones Cube shaped bones with no marrow cavity.
Flat bones Thin, flat bones.
Pneumatic bones Sinus-containing bones.
Irregular bones Unpaired bones.
Sesamoid bones Small bones embedded in a tendon.
Ball-and-socket joints Allow a wide range of motion in many directions.
Arthrodial or condyloid joints Joints with oval projections that fit into a socket.
Trochoid joints Pulley-shaped joints.
Hinge joints Allow motion in one plane or direction.
Gliding joints Joints that move or glide over each other.
Saddle joint Allows primates to flex, extend, abduct, adduct, and circumduct the thumb.
Ligament A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another to help stabilize joints.
Tendon A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone to help the animal move.
Bursa A fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction.
Synovial membrane Inner lining of bursae and synovial joints which secretes synovial fluid as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth.
Axial skeleton The framework of the body. Includes skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum.
Appendicular skeleton The framework of the body that consists of the extremeties, shoulder, and pelvic girdles. (Appendages.)
Cranium The portion of the skull that encloses the brain.
Frontal Forms the roof of the cranial cavity, or "front" or cranial portion of the skull.
Parietal Paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity.
Occipital Forms the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum (opening of the spinal cord) is located.
Temporal Paired bones that form the sides and base of the cranium.
Sphenoid Paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the bony eye socket.
Ethmoid Forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity.
Incisive Forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edges of nares.
Pterygoid Forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx.
Sinuses Air or fluid filled spaces in the skull.
Zygomatic The orbit and cheekbone.
Maxilla Upper jaw.
Mandible Lower jaw.
Palatine Part of the hard palate.
Lacrimal Medial part of the orbit.
Incisive Rostral part of the hard palate and lower edge of nares.
Nasal Bridge of the nose.
Vomer Base of the nasal septum (cartilanogous structure that divides the two nasal cavities).
Hyoid Bone suspended between the mandible and the laryngopharynx.
Cervical region (vertebral) Neck area. "C"
Thoracic region (vertebral) Chest area. "T"
Lumbar region (vertebral) Loin area. "L"
Sacral region (vertebral) Sacrum area. "S"
Coccygeal/caudal region (vertebral) Tail area. "Cy" or "Cd"
Vertebral foramen Opening in the middle of the vertebra where the spinal cord passes through.
Intervertebral discs Cartilage discs that separate and cushion vertebrae.
Body of vertebra Solid portion ventral to the spinal cord.
Arch of vertebra Dorsal part that surrounds the spinal cord.
Lamina of vertebra Left or right dorsal half of the arch.
Spinous process A single projection from the dorsal part of the vertebral arch.
Articular processes Paired cranial and caudal projections on the dorsum of the vertebral arch.
Atlas "C1" Cervical vertebra one.
Axis "C2" Cervical vertebra two.
Costals Ribs. Paired bones that attach to thoracic vertebrae.
Sternum Breastbone. Forms the midline ventral portion of the rib cage. Divided into 3 parts- manubrium, body, and xyphoid process.
Manubrium The cranial portion of the sternum.
Body (sternum) The middle portion of the sternum.
Xyphoid process The caudal portion of the sternum.
Thoracic cavity Rib cage.
Scapula Shoulder blade.
Clavicle Collar bone.
Humerus The long bone of the proximal front limb. Sometimes called brachium.
Antebrachium Region of the forearm of the radius and ulna.
Radius Cranial bone of the front limb.
Ulna Caudal bone of the front limb.
Olecranon Proximal projection of the ulna that forms the point of the elbow.
Carpal bones Irregularly shaped bones, the wrist in humans. In small animals it's the carpus. In large, it's the knee.
Metacarpals Bones found distal to the carpus.
Splint bones Metacarpals and metatarsals II and IV (in horses) which do not articulate with the phalanges.
Cannon bone The large third metacarpal or metatarsal bone, which is attached to the splint bones by an interosseous ligament.
Phalanges Bones of the digits. One is a phalanx.
Digits (Like fingers)
Dewclaw Digit I of dogs. In cloven-hoofed animals it's called a vestigial digit.
Claw Phalanx 3 (P3) in non-hooved animals.
Sesamoid bones Small nodular bones embedded in a tendon or joint capsule.
Pelvis Hip. Consists of three pairs of bones- ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Ilium Largest pair of bones in the pelvis, blade-shaped.
Ischium Caudal pair of bones in the pelvis.
Pubis Ventral pair of bones that are fused on midline by a cartilaginous joint called the pubis symphysis.
Acetabulum Large socket of the pelvic bone, where the three bones meet. Forms the ball-and-socket joint with the femur.
Femur Thigh bone.
Patella Large sesamoid bone in the rear limb. The kneecap in people.
Stifle joint Joint that houses the patella. Knee in humans.
Tibia Larger and more weight-bearing bone of the two distal long bones in the rear limb.
Fibula Long, slender bone (smaller of the two) in the rear limb.
Tarsus/Hock Irregularly shaped bones in the ankle area of people. Tarsus-small animals. Hock-large animals.
Created by: Taylor Miller