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Bio Ch 3 Terms

TermDefinition
Amino Acids organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group
Biological Molecules "organic molecule in cells; carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids"
Carbohydrate "class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and poly saccharides"
Cellulose polysaccharide that is the major complex carb in plant cell walls
Chitin strong but flexible nitrogenous polysaccharide in the exoskeleton of arthropods
Cholesterol one of the major lipids found in animal plasma membranes; makes the membrane impermeable to many molecules
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction chemical reaction resulting in a covalent bond with the accompanying loss of a water molecules
Denatured "loss of an enzyme's normal shape, so that is no longer functions"
Deoxyribose "in DNA, pentose sugar that has one less hydroxyl group than ribose"
Disaccharide sugar that contains 2 units of a monosaccharide
DNA nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose
Enzyme organic catalyst that speeds up a reaction in cells due to its shape
Fat organic molecule that contains glycerol and fatty acids and is found in adipose tissue of vertebrates
Fatty Acid molecule contains a hydrocarbon chains and ends with an acid group
Fibrous Protein structural protein with only a secondary structure
Function Group specific cluster of atoms attached to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules that enters into reactions and behaves in a predictable way
Globular Protein protein who's polypeptides give it a tertiary structure and a globular shape
Glucose six-carbon sugar that organisms degrade as a source of energy during cellular respiration
Glycerol three-carbon carb with three hydroxyl groups attached
Glycogen storage polysaccharide found in animals
Hemoglobin iron-containing respiratory pigment occurring in vertebrate RBCs and in the blood plasma of some invertebrates
Hydrolysis Reaction splitting of a compound by the addition of water with the H+ being incorporated into one molecule and the OH- into the other
Hydrophilic type of molecule that interacts with water by dissolving in water and/or by forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules
Hydrophobic type of molecule that does not interact with water because it is nonpolar
Inorganic Chemistry study of compounds not having a carbon basis
Isomer molecule with the same molecular formula as another but having a different structure and therefore a different shape
Lipid class of organic compounds that tends to be soluble in nonpolar solvents
Monomer small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer
Monosaccharide simple sugar; a carb that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis
Nucleic Acid polymer of nucleotides
Nucleotide monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a five-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
Oil triglyceride that is composed of glycerol and three fatty acids and is liquid in consistency due to many unsaturated bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids
Organic molecule that always contains carbon and hydrogen and often contains oxygen as well
Organic Chemistry study of carbon compounds
Peptide tow or more amino acids joined together by covalent bonding
Peptide Bond type of covalent bond that pins two amino acids
Phospholipid molecule that forms the phospholipid bilayer of plasma membrane
Polymer macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded monomers
Polypeptide polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Polysaccharide polymer made from sugar monomers
Protein molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides
Ribose pentose sugar found in RNA
RNA nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose
Saturated Fatty Acid fatty acid molecule that lacks double bonds between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chains
Starch "in plants, storage polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion with few side chains"
Steroid type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings
Trans Fat a form of unsaturated fatty acid in which the hydrogen atoms of the carbon chain are eon opposite sides of the double bond
Triglyceride neutral fat composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
Unsaturated Fatty Acid fatty acid molecule that has one or more double bonds between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chain
Created by: armyhorses