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A&P Ass2 Terms

Intro to A&P Assignment 2 Terms

Abduction joint movement whereby an extremity is moved away from the median plane
acetabulum "socket portion of the ball-and-socket hip jiont; formed at junction of ilim,ischium, and pubic bones"
Actin protein that composes microfilaments
Adduction joint movement whereby an extremity is moved toward the median plane
aerobic metabolism metabolism in muscle in which the supply of available oxygen is sufficient to keep up with the energy needs of the muscle fibers
agonist used to describe a muscle/muscle group that directly produces a desired movement
all-or-nothing principle principle that an individual muscle fiber either contracs complete/not at all
alula "1st finger in birds, originates from wrist and carries the alula feathers"
amphiarthroses slightly movable cartilaginous joint
anaerobic metabolism occurs when the need for energy to produce muscular activity excees the available oxygen supply
Anapsid skulls of primitive reptiles (all extinct but turtles) that have no temporal openings
anconeal process beak-shaped process at the proximal end of the trochlear notch of the ulna
antebrachium forearm region of the thoracic limb
aponeuroses broad sheet of fibrous connective tissue that attaches certain muscle to bones/other muscles
appendicular skeleton bones of the limbs
articular cartilage thing layer of hyaline cartilage that ocvers the articular surfaces of long bones in synovial joints
articular processes process of a certebra that forms a synovial jint w/ an adjacent vertebra
Articular surfaces smooth joint surface of a bone that contacts another bone in a synovial jiont
asternal ribs rib whose costal cartilage joins the costal cartilage of the rib ahead of it instead of directly joining the sternum
atlas 1st cervical vertebra
ATP adenosine triphosphate; high energy molecule produced in the mitochondria
axial skeleton bones along the central axis of the body
axis 2nd cervical vertebera
Ball-and-Socket Joints "consists of a spherical joint surface that fits into a closely matching, concave joint surface"
bone cortex outer layer os a bone that is composed of compact bone
Bone marrow soft material that fills ithe spaces inside bones
bones of the face skull bones that do not surround the brain
brachium upper arm; area of the thoracic limb between the elbow and the shoulder
calcaneal tuberosity large process of the fibular tarsal bone that projects upward and backward
calcitonin hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that prevents the level of calcium in the blood from getting too high
canaliculi tiny channels through the amtrix fo bone
Cancellous bone form of bone composed of seeminly random arrangemt of spicules of bone separated by spaces filled with bone amrrow; spongy bone
carpal bones bones of the carpus; consist of 2 parallel rows of short bones located between the distal ends of the raidus and ulna and the proximal ends of the metacarpal bones
carpus joint composed of the carpal bones
Cartilaginous joint joint in which the bones are united by cartilage
Cervical vertebrae bones of the neck portion of the spinal comlumn
Circumduction joint motion whereby the distal end of an extremity moves in a circle
coccygeal vertebrae bones of the tail portion of the spinal column
Compact bone "heavy, dense bone made up of tiny, tightly compacted, laminated cylinders of bone called haversian systems"
condyle "lare, rounded articular surface"
costal cartilage "cartilaginous, ventral portion of a rib"
costochondral junction junction with the bony part of the rib
cranium cranial portion of the dorsal body cavity formed from several skull bones
creatine phosphate (CP) molecule in muscle cells that splits to release the energy necessary to reattach the detached phosphate group to an ADP molecule to convert it back to ATP
cribriform plate sievelike area of the ehtmoid bone through which the many branches of the olfactory nerve pass from the upper portion of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs of the brain
cross bridges tiny levers on the myosin filaments of muscle
Cutaneous muscles thin muscles in the connective tissue beneath the skin.
dens process on the cranial end of the 2nd cervical vertebra that fits into the caudal end of the 1st vertebra
dense bodies structures in smooth muscle cells to which the small contractile units of actin and myosin attach
dewclaw toe that does not reach the ground
diaphysis shaft portion of a long bone
Diapsid skulls of various reptiles w/ two pairs of temporal openings behind each eye
diarthrodial joints complicated name of gliding joints
diarthroses freely movable synovial joint
digit toe made up of 2 or 3 bones called phalanges
endochondral bone formation the type of bone formation whereby bone grows into an dreplaces a cartilage model
endomysium "thin, delicate layer of connective tissue that surrounds each individual skeletal muscle fiber"
endosteum fibrous membrane that lines the hollow interiors of bones
epimysium "tough, connective tissue layer that covers and delineates individual muscles"
epiphyseal plates/growth plates growth plate of a long bone
epiphysis end of a long bone
ethmoid bone skull bone; an internal bone of the cranium; located just rostral of the sphenoid bone
ethmoidal sinus paranasal sinus in the ethmoid bone of horses and humans
expiratory muscles muscle whose action is to decrease the size of the thoracic cavity
Extension joint movement that increases the angle between 2 bones
external acoustic meatus bone canal in the temporal bone that leads into the middle and inner ear cavities of the bone
fabellae one of two small sesamoid bones located in the proximal gastrocnemius muscle tendon just above and behind the femoral condyles of dogs and cats
facet flat articular surface
fascicles group of skeletal muscle fibers bound by a layer of fibrous connective tissue (perimysium)
femur long bone of the thigh region; forms the hip joint with the pelvis at its proximal end and the stifle with the tibia at its distal end
fetlock joint "lay terms for the most proximal joint of the quine digit, which is the joint between the large metacarpal or metatarsal and the proximal phalanx"
Fibrous joint immovable joint; aka synarthrosis
fibula thin bone located beside the tibia in the lower leg region of the pelvic limb
Fixator muscle that stabilizes a jiont so that other muscles can produce effective movements of other joints
Flat bones bones that are relatively thin and flat
Flexion joint movement that decreases the angle between two bones
floating ribs most caudal rib or two in the rib cage; cartilage does not unite with anything but rather ends in the muscle of the thoracic wall.
foramen a hole in a bone
foramen magnum large hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord exits the skull
fossa edepressed or sunken area on the surface of a bone
Frontal bones skull bones; external bones of the cranium
frontal sinus large paransal sinus in the frontal bone of the skull
ginglymus joints hinge joint in which one articular surface swivels around another
glenoid cavity concave articular surface of the scapula; socket protion of the ball and socket shoulder joint
Gliding Joint arthrodial joint in which two flat articular surfaces rock on each other
haversian canal central canal that runs the length of a haversian system
haversian systems "microscopic, laminated cylinders of bone that make up compact boen"
head spheroidal articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone
hematopoiesis blood cell production
hematopoietic tissue tissue that produces blood cells
Hinge Joints joint whereby one surface swivels around another like a door hingle
hock ankle joint; joins the tibiotarsus and the tarsometatarsus
humerus long bone of the brachium or upper arm
hyoid apparatus hyoid bone
hyoid bone "bone in the neck region that supports the base of the tongue, the pharynx, and the larynx and aids the process of swallowing"
Ilium most cranial of the three pairs of bones that make up the pelvis
Incisive bones skull bones that are part of the external bones of the face
Incus "one of the three ossicles, the tiny bones that trasnmit sound wave vibrations across themiddle ear."
insertion of the muscle most movable of the attachment sites of a muscle
inspiratory muscles muscle whose action is to increase the size of the thoracic cavity
intercalated discs en-to-end attachment sites between adjacent cardiac muscle cells
Interparietal bones skull bones that are part of the external bones of the cranium
intervertebral discs cartilaginous disk located between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae
intramembranous bone formation membrane bone formation; only occurs in certain skull bones when bone forms in the fibrous tissue membranes that cover the brain in a developing fetus
involuntary muscle old name for smooth muscle
Irregular bones "boen whose shape does not fit into the long bone, short bone , or flat bone categories"
Ischium most caudal of the three pairs of bones that make up the pelvis
joint capsule membrane that encloses the ends of the bones in a synovial joint
joint cavity fluid-filled potential space between the joint surfaces of a synovial joint
joint space aka joint cavity
Joints junction between two bones
keel bony ridge of the sternum of birds to which flight muscles attach
Ligaments band of fibrous connective tissue that is present in and around mahy synovial joints
Long bones bonest that are longer than they are wide
Lumbar vertebrae group of vertebrae located dorsal to the abdominal region
Malleus "one of the three ossicles, the tiny bones that trasnmit sound wave vibrations across the middle ear."
mandible skull bone; one of the external bones of the face
mandibular symphysis cartilaginous joint that unites the two sides of themandible at the rostral end
manubrium "first, most cranial sternebra"
Maxillary Bones skull bones; external bones of the face
maxillary sinuses paranasal sinus in the maxillary bones
meniscus "one of two concave, half moon shaped, cartilaginous structures on the proximal surface of the tibia that help support the condyles of the femur"
metacarpal bones bone sof the forelimb that lie between the carpals and phalanges of quadrupeds
metatarsal bones bones of the pelvinc limbs located between the tarsus and the phalanges
metatarsal pad bottom of a birds' food
motor unit one nerve fiber and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
multiunit smooth muscle type of smooth muscle ocmposed of individual smooth muscle cells or small groups of cells
myofibrils "microscopic, fiberl ike struc utures that occupy most of the cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells"
myoglobin protein in muscle cells that has properties similar to hemoglobin
myosin filaments one of the wo contractile proteins of muscle that lsideover each other to prode the shortening of the muscle cell that we refer to as muscle contractiosn
Nasal Bones skull bones that are a part of the eternal bones of the face
nasal conchae skull bones that are part of the internal bones of the face; aka turbinates
nasal septum midline barrier that separates the left and right nasal passages
navicular bone distal sesamoid bone of the horse
neck area of a bone that joins the hehad with the main protion of the bone
neuromuscular junctions the connection between the end bulb of a motor nerve fiber and a skeletal muscle cell
nonstriated involuntary muscle old name for smooth muscle
nutrient foramina large channel through the cortex of alarge bone through whcil large blood vessels pass carrying blood to and from the bone marrow
obturator foramina pair of large holes in the pelvis located on either side of the pelvic symphysis
Occipital bone skull bone that is one of the external bones of the cranium
occipital condyles one of two articular surfaces on the occipital bone
olecranon process large process on the proximal end of the ulna that forms that point of the elbow
origin of the muscle more stable of the attachment sites of a muscle
Os cordis visceral bone in the heart of cattle that helps support the valves of the heart
Os penis visceral bone in the penis of dogs that partially surrounds the penile portion of the urethra
Os rostri visceral bone in the snout of swine that strengthens it for the rootin behavior of pigs
ossicles skull bones that are the bones of the ear
ossification mineralization or hardening of bone
Osteoblasts cells that produce bone
Osteoclasts "lare, multinuclear cells of the bone that absorb bone and structures and reshape remodel damaged bones"
Osteocytes matrue bone cell
Palatine Bones skull bones that are part of the internal bones of the face; aka turbinates
palpated examine parts of the body by touching and feeling them
paranasal sinus space within a ksull bone that is an outpouching of the nasal cavity
parathyroid hormone "endocrine glands consisting of several small nodules located in, on, or near the thyroid gland"
Parietal bones skull bones that are among the external bones of the cranium
patagium lightly vascularized web of skin in birds externding from the shoulder to the wrise
patella kneecap; largest sesamoid bone in the body
pectoral crest "thin, widened area on the proximal humerus where the wing muscles of a bird attach"
pectoralis large lfight muscle originating from the keel and inserting on the humerus
pelvic limb hind limb
pelvic symphysis cartilaginous joint that unites the two halves of the pelvis ventrally
pelvis most proximal bone strucutre of the pelvic limb
perimysium fibrous connective tissue layer in skeletal muscle that surrounds groups of nmuscle fibers and binds them into groups called fascicles
periosteum fibrous membrane that covers the outsides of bones except for their articular surfaces
phalanges/phalanx bone of a digit
pituitary fossa depression in the dorsal surface of sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland in the living animal
Pivot Joints joint that allows only a rotary motion
primary growth center main growth area o f a bone developing by the endochondral method
prime mover muscle/muscle group that directly produces a desired movement
process "general name for a lump, bump, or other projection on a bone"
Pterygoid Bones skull bones that are part of the internal bones of the face
Pubis smallest and most medial of the three pairs of bones that make up the pelvis
pygostyle bony plate in birds formed by the fusion of several coccygeal vertebrae
radius one of thtwo bones that form the antebrachium or forearm
Ramus of the mandible vertical portion of the mandible located at its caudal end
Red bone marrow hematopoietic type of bone marrow
ribs long bones of the axial skeleton that form the lateral walls of the thorax
Rotation joint movement that consists of a twisting motion of a part on its own axis
sacral vertebrae vertebrae of the pelvic region
sacroiliac join joint between the pelvis and the sacrum that jions the pelvic limb to the axial skeleton
sacrum solid structure formed by the fusion of the sacral vertebrae
sarcomere basic contracting unit of skeletal muscle
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle cell
sarcoplasmic reticulum organelle in a muscle cell that is equivalent to the endoplasmic reticulum of other cells
scapula shoulder blad; most proximal bone of the thoracic lumb
sclerotic ring bony paltest aht act as a protective border of the eye sockets
secondary growth centers secondary areas of growth in bones developing by the endochondral method.
Shaft "keratinized, visible portion of hair that extends above the surface of the epithelium"
Short bones small bone shaped like a small cube
skeletal muscle fibers "multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal"
skull collective name of the 37 or 38 bones of the head
sphenoid bone skull bone that is one of the internal bones of the cranium
sphenoidal sinus paranasal sinus in the sphenoid bone
spheroidal joints ball-and-socket joint
spinal canal "long, flexible, caudla portion of the dorsal body cavity formed by the adjacent arches of the vertebrae of the spine"
spinal column "aka vertebral column; collective name for the cervical, thoracic, lumber, sacral, and cocygeal vertebrae"
spinous process "single, dorsally projecting process of a vertebra"
splint bones vestigial cmetacarpal and metatarsal bones of ahorse's leg
Stapes "one of the three ossicles, which are the tiny bones that transmit sound wave vibrations across the middle ear"
sternal ribs rib whose costal cartilage directly jions the sternum
sternebrae bone of the sternum
sternum breastbone; series of rodlike bones called sternebrae that form the floor of the thorax
stifle joint jiont between the femur and the tibia
supracoracoideus "small, deep flight muscle originating on the keel and inserting on the top of the humerus"
sutures immovable fibrous joint that unites most of the ksull bones
synarthrosis immovable fibrous joint (sutures)
synergist something that aids the action of something else
synovial fluid viscous fluid formed by the lining layer of the jiont capsule of a synovial joint
synovial joint freely movable joint
synovial membrane membrane that lines jiont capsule
synsacrum "strong bony plate created by the fusion of the distal lumbar vertebrae, the sacral vertebrae, and the first few coccygeal vertebrae"
tail autonomy the process of some lizards' breaking off a portion of their tail
tarsal bones "bones of the tarsus, consisting of two rows of short bones located between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the rpoximal ends of the metatarsal bones"
tarsus joint composed of the tarsal bones
Temporal bones skull bones athat are part of the external bones of the cranium
temporomandibular joints (TMJs) the hinge joint one each side of the lower jaw that connects it with the rest of the skull
tendons fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles ot bones
Thoracic limb front limb
thoracic vertebrae group of vertebrae located dorsal to the thoracic region
tibia main weight bearing bone of the lower leg
tibial crest longitudinal ridge on the fron tf the proximal end of the tibia
transverse processes lateral projecting process of a vertebra
transverse tubules or T tubules system of tubule in a skeletal muscle cell that extend from the sarcolemma into the depths of the cell
trochoid joints aka pivot joint; one bone pivots on another in a rotary motion
Turbinates skull bones athat are part of the internal bones of the face; four thin scroll like bones that fill most of the space in the nasal cavity
tympanic membrane eardrum
ulna one of the two bones that form the antebrachium or forearm
uncinate process projection on the complete rib that overlaps the adjoining rear rib to strengthn the rib cage
ungual process process on the distal end of the distal phalanx of dogs and cats that is surrounded by the claw in the living animal
vertebrae one of the bones of the spinal column
vertebral column aka spinal column
viscera soft organs
visceral skeleton bones formed in soft organs
visceral smooth muscle type of smooth muscle ofound in the walls of many soft internal organs
Volkmann’s canals one of countelss itny channels thorugh the matrix of bone that bring lbood in from the periosteum to the haversian canals in the centers of the haversian systems
Vomer Bone skull bone that is one of the internal bones of the face
xiphoid "last, most caudal sternebra"
Yellow bone marrow most ocommon type of bone marrow in adult animals
Z line dark line in the center of the light band (I band) of skeletal muscle
zygodactyl toe position in some birds in which the fourth digis is opposable and can be positioned forward or to the rear
Zygomatic Bones skull bones athat are part of the eternal bones of the face
Created by: armyhorses



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