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A&P Ass2 TY

Intro to A&P Assignment 2 Test Yourself

QuestionAnswer
"Besides supporting the other tissues, what else do bones do?" "They protect vital organs & tissues by surrounding them partially or completely. Act as levers for the skeletal muscles to move the body. Storage site for minerals, particularly calcium. Soe bones serve as sites for blood cell formation."
What are the three kinds of bone cells? What role does each play in the life of a bone? Osteoblasts secrete the matrix & minerals needed to harden the bone. Osteocytes revert back to osteoblasts if an injury takes place. Osteoclasts eat away parts of the bone that’s not needed.
What is the matrix of the bone made of? What makes it so hard? "THe matrix is composed of collagen fibers embedded in a gelatin-like ground substance made of polysaccharides. Through ossification, the matrix is infiltrated w/ calcium & phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals; which gives bone its hardness."
What are the main differences between the structures of cancellous bone & compact bone? Why does the body need these two different type of bones? "The cancellous bone is a light, spongy bone that helps reduce the weight of the bones w/out significantly reducing its strength. The compact bone is a heavy, dense, strong bone that makes up the shafts of long bones & the outside layer of all bones."
What is the difference between a haversian canal & a Volkmann’s canal? "Volkmann’s canals only transport blood vessels. Haversian canals contain blood vessels, lymph vessels, & nerves. They both join up to bring nutrition to osteocytes."
"By which mechanism of bone formation do most bones in the animal body develop before birth, & how does the process take place?" "Most bones develop through endochondral bone formation. The body creates a “template” made of cartilage, then slowly forms it into bone at the primary & secondary growth centers."
What is the difference between the primary growth center & the secondary growth center? Primary is located in the diaphysis of the bone. Secondary is in the epiphyses.
"Where would you find an epiphyseal plate, & what would you find it doing?" It is located between the diaphysis & the epiphyses. The epiphyseal plate is where the creation of new bone allows the long bone to lengthen as the animal grows.
What is bone marrow & the difference between red & yellow? "Bone marrow is what fills the spaces between bones. Red bone marrow forms blood cells & is most common in younger animals. Yellow bone marrow is primarily adipose tissue, most common in adult animals; it can revert to red bone marrow if needed."
Name the skull bones that make up each group: "ExtCranium- Occipital, Frontal, Temporal, Interparietal, Parietal; IntCranium- Ethmoid, Sphenoid; BonesEar- Malleus, Incus, Stapes; ExtFace- Mandible, Incisive, Nasal, Lacrimal, Maxillary, Zygomatic; INtFace- Palatine, Pterygoid, Vomer, Turbinates"
Where are each of the following found: Cribriform Plate- Ethmoid; External Acoustic Meatus- Temporal; Foramen Magnum- Occipital; Frontal Sinus- Frontal; Lacrimal Sac- Lacrimal; Lower Teeth- M&ible; Pituitary Fossa- Sphenoid; Upper Incisor- Incisive; Upper Cheek- Maxillary
Which would likely be greater threat to an animal’s well-being: a fracture of the m&ible or to the occipital bone? Why? The occipital bone would be a greater threat because this is where the foramen magnum is located. The foramen magnum is where the spinal cord exits the skull. Also because of the occipital condyles that connect the head to the neck.
Which groups of vertebrae make up the spinal column dorsal to the regions? Abdomen- Lumbar; Neck- Cervical; Pelvis- Sacral; Tail- Coccygeal; Thorax- Thoracic
What are the three kinds of processes & their characteristics? "Spinous is a single, dorsal projections; muscle attach. Transverse are two lateral projections; muscle attach. Articular are located on the cranial & caudal ends of the vertebral arches & help form the joints between adjacent vertebrae."
Where in the vertebra is the spinal cord located? "When the arches of all the vertebrae are lined up, they form a long, flexible tunnel called the spinal canal, which house & protects the spinal cord."
What are the first two cervical vertebrae & their characteristics? "The atlas is a bony ring the spinal cord passes through w/ its 2 wings sticking out laterally. The axis is a large, bladelike spinous process that projects up dorsally & fit into the caudal end of the atlas to help form the atlantoaxial joint."
"What is the difference between a sternal, asternal, & a floating rib?" A sternal rib is when the cartilage connects to the sternum. An asternal rib is when the cartilage connects to adjacent costal cartilage. A floating rib is when the cartilage doesn’t connect to anything.
What is the manubrium? The most cranial sternebrae
What is the xiphoid? The most caudal sternebrae
Name the bones of the thoracic limb from proximal to distal. Scapula-Humerus-Radius & Ulna- Carpal-Metacarpal-Phalanges
What is the anatomical name for shoulder blade? Scapula
What is the brachium & the antebrachium & which bones form them? The brachium is the humerus & the the antebrachium is the ulna.
On which bone is the olecranon process found? What is its purpose? "It is found on the ulna. It forms the point of the elbow, where the tendon of the powerful triceps brachii muscle attaches."
What are the anatomical names for the cannon bones & the splint bones in a horse? The metacarpal & the vestigial carpal
Which digit is the dewclaw on the front leg of the dog? Digit I
What is the common name for the distal sesamoid bone in the horse? The navicular bone
Name the bones of the pelvic limb from distal to proximal. Phalanges-Metatarsal-Tarsal-Fibula-Tibia-Fabella-Patella-Femur-Pelvis
What 3 pairs of bones make up the pelvis? What region of the pelvis does each form? Ilium is the most cranial portion of the pelvis. The ischium is the most caudal. The pubis is located medially & forms the cranial portion of the pelvic floor.
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the body? The patella
Which bone is larger & supports most of an animal’s weight the tibia or fibula? The tibia
On which bone of the pelvic limb is the calcaneal tuberosity found? What is the purpose? The tarsal bone. It is the point of attachment for the tendon of the large gastrocnemius muscle & corresponds to our heel.
"What are the main characteristics of the fibrous, cartilaginous, & synovial joints?" "Fibrous joints are immovable, cartilaginous are slightly movable, & synovial are freely movable."
What is synovial fluid & why is it important to the functioning of a synovial joint? Synovial fluid is produced by the synovial membrane to lubricate the joint surfaces.
What is the difference between tendons & ligaments? "Tendons connect bones to muscles, ligaments connect bones to bones."
Name some examples of these kinds of synovial joints Ball-&-Socket- Shoulder; Gliding- Carpus/Wrist; Hinge- Elbow; Pivot- Atlantoaxial
What is muscle? "One of the four basic types of tissue, made of cells that can contract."
What are the three types of muscle & wat are some of the general characteristics of each type? Skeletal-responsible for conscious movement; Cardiac- heart muscle; Smooth- Used for unconscious activities
What is the difference between a tendon & an aponeuroses? Tendons are fibrous connective tissue b&s that attach muscles to bones. Aponeuroses are fibrous connective tissue sheets that attach muscles to bones or muscles.
What is the origin & the insertion of the muscle? The origin of the muscle is the more stable site of muscle attachment. The insertion is the site that undergoes most of the movements.
Why might it be of clinical importance to know the origin & insertion of a muscle? "If theres decreased mobility, problems w/ the joint."
"Describe a skeletal muscle in terms of cell size, shape, number of nuclei, & appearance under the microscope." "Length= 25,000?m; Width= 80?m; 100s of nuclei; Alternating light & dark b&s"
"What are the differences among skeletal muscle fiber, skeletal muscle myofibril, & skeletal muscle protein filaments?" Skeletal muscle fibers are skeletal muscle cells; myofibrils pack together to make the fibers; the protein filaments make the myofibrils.
Which contractile protein filaments make up the dark b&s? Light b&s? A b&=dark; I b&=light
What is a sarcomere & its components? "The area from Z line to another is a sarcomere, & is the basic contracting unit of skeletal muscle. Each myofibril is made up of many sarcomeres lined up end to end."
"What ion, released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by a nerve impulse, starts the contraction process in a muscle fiber?" Calcium ion
What molecules in muscle acts as the “batteries” to power the sliding of actin & myosin filaments? What molecules function as the “battery charger”? ATP; Creatine phosphate
"If individual muscle fiber contractions obey the all-or-nothing principle, how does an animal control the size & strength of its muscular movement?" By controlling the number of muscle fibers it stimulates for a particular movement
What is myoglobin & why is it important? Myoglobin is a large protein used to store oxygen. It is important because it can release large quantities of oxygen when muscle contractions begin to deplete the oxygen supply to muscle fibers.
Why does an animal breathe heavily for awhile after heavy exercise? "To take in oxygen needed to convert lactic acid back to glucose, in the liver."
"Describe a cardiac muscle in terms of size, shape, number of nuclei, & appearance under the microscope." "Striated, contain many of the same organelles as skeletal, much smaller than skeletal, one nucleus, longer than wide w/ branches, attach together end to end (intercalated discs) that are visible under the microscope as dark, transverse lines."
What are intercalated discs & why are they important to the functioning of the cardiac muscle? The intercalated discs securely fasten the cells together & also transmit impulses from cell to cell to large groups of cardiac muscle cells to contract in a coordinated manner.
Describe the effect of a cardiac muscle nerve supply on its functioning. The cardiac nerve supply can modify the rate of contractions based on the body’s need.
What is the general effect of sympathetic nervous system stimulation on cardiac muscle? Parasympathetic? "Sympathetic fibers stimulate the heart to beat harder & faster as part of the fight/flight response. Parasympathetic fibers do the opposite, they cause the heart to beat more slowly & w/ less force when the body is relaxed & resting."
"Describe a smooth muscle cell in terms of size, shape, number of nuclei & appearance under microscope." "Small & Spindle shaped, single nucleus in the center, smooth & homogenous in appearance."
What are the main differences between visceral & multiunit smooth muscle? "Visceral is found in viscera, cells are linked to form large sheets, no need of stimulation, strong contractions, nerve supply. Multi unit is small & delicate, & found where fine contractions are needed, specific controlled impulses, no nerve supply."
Describe the effect of nerve stimulation on the functioning of visceral smooth muscle & multiunit smooth muscle. Visceral contracts w/out the need for external stimulation. Does react to stretching by contracting more strongly. Multiunit require specific impulses from autonomic nerves.
What is the general effect of sympathetic nervous system on visceral? Parasympathetic? Sympathetic stimulation decreases visceral muscle activity; whereas parasympathetic increases activity.
"What are the main differences in the structure & functions of skeletal, cardiac, & smooth muscle?" Skeletal: manynuclei, same time, voluntary, striated,move bones&generate heat; Cardiac- branches, interca discs, wavelike fashion, involuntary, striated, 1nucleus; Smooth- spindle, 1 nucleus,wavelike sheets/small groups, involuntary non-striated.
Created by: armyhorses