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A&P Ass3 Terms

Penn Foster Intro to A&P Assignment 3 Terms

Adult hemoglobin the primary type of hemoglobin found in RBCs of animals beginning a couple of weeks to a couple of months after birth
agranulocytes WBCs w/o cytoplasmic granules
air sacs "9 thin, transparent membranes in birds that are connected to the primary & secondary bronchi & act as reservoirs for entering & leaving the lungs"
alveolar ducts the smallest air passageways in the lungs
alveolar sacs clusters of alveoli at the ends of the alveolar ducts
alveoli "microscopic, thin-walled sacs surrounds by networks of capillaries"
Anemia "decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood caused by insufficient numbers of RBCs, decreased hemoglobin concern, or a combo of both"
antigen "cells or organisms that are ""not self""; initiates an immune response"
aorta major artery of the systemic circulation that receives blood from the LV
aortic valve a semilunar valve; separates the LV & the aorta during diastole
arytenoid cartilages two of the cartilages of the larynx; attach to vocal cords
auricles ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart
B Lymphocytes the type of lymphocyte that is responsible for humoral immunity through its transformation into a plasma cell & production of antibodies
basopenia decrease in the total number of basophils in peripheral blood
Basophils "granulocytic WBC characterized by the presence of numerous, dark blue-staining"
bifurcation of the trachea the division of the trachea at its caudal end into the left & right main bronchi
bilirubin the yellow breakdown product of hemoglobin
blastic transformation B lymphocytes become plasma cells that produce antibodies
bronchi largest air passageways in the lungs; branch into bronchial tree
bronchial tree air passageways in the lungs between the main bronchi & the alveoli
bronchioles some of the smallest branches of the bronchial tree; divide into alveolar ducts
bursa of Fabricius specialized organ in brids needed for B lymphocyte development
Cardiac output amount of blood that leaves the heart
cell-mediated immunity "portion of the immune system that produces ""killer"" cells that directly attack foreign invaders"
Chemical system "respiratory control that monitors the pH, O2 & CO2 content."
chemotaxis movement of WBC to an area of inflammation in response to chemical mediators
choanae 2 internal nares that open from the nasal chmabers into the roof of the mouth
chordae tendinae "fine, threadlike cords that connect 2 AV to the appropriate papillary muscles in the ventricles"
chylomicrons microscopic particles of fat found in chle & blood
circulating pool neutrophils found in the peripheral blood flowing through the center of blood vessels
cricoid cartilage one of the cartilages in the larynx; form & support the caudal portion of the larynx
Deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin that is not carrying oxygen
diapedesis WBC leave the blood vessel & enter the tissue by squeezing through the tiny spaces between the cells lining the blood vessel walls
diaphragm "thin, dome-shaped sheet of muscle that forms the boundary between the thoracic & abdominal cavities"
diaphragmaticus the muscle that attaches the caudal aspect of the liver to the pubis is reptiles & amphibians
diastole partrt of the cardica cycle associated w/ relaxation of the atria & ventricles & the filling of the chambers w/ blood
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid (localized/generalized) w/I the tissues/cavities of the body
electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG recording of the electrical activity of the heart
Embryonic Hemoglobin (HbE) hemoglobin found in RBCs during early fetal life.
eosinopenia decrease in the total number of eosinophils in peripheral blood
eosinophilia increase in the total number of eosinophils in peripheral blood
Eosinophils granulocytic WBC characterized by the presence of numerous red-staining granules
epiglottis "most rostral of laryngeal cartilages, assists in breathing & swallowing"
epitope the amino acids on the cell surface of antigens
erythropoiesis production of erythrocytes
expiration pushing air out of the lungs; exhalation
external respiration process of respiration that occurs in the lungs
extravascular hemolysis destruction of RBCs outside of a blood vessel
false vocal cords vestibular folds; connective tissue b&s in the larynx of nonruminant animals in addition to vocal cords
faveoli minute pits or depressions
Fetal Hemoglobin (HbF) predominant hemoglovin in RBCs during later part of gestation
fibrinolysis destruction of the fibrin str&s that make up the matrix of a clot
foramen of Panizza shunt connecting the left & right atria in the crocodile heart
glottis opening in the larynx
granulocytes WBCs characterized by the presence of granules
granulopoiesis production of granulocytes
gular fluttering rapid vibations of the upper trhoart patch in some birds; used to increase cooling
gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) lymphoid tissue scattered throughout the lining of the intestines
haptoglobin transport plasma protein that carries free hemoglobin from intravascular hemolysis to the macrophages of the MPS for further breakdown
Heart rate how often the heart contracts
Hematopoiesis blood cell production
hematopoietic stem cells tissue that produces blood cells
hemoconcentration condition resulting from loss of plasma from blood into tissue
hemodilution condition resulting in excess fluiid entering blood from tisse or IV injection
Hemoglobin protein molecules found inside RBCs that are responsible for carrying oxygen molecules
hemoglobinemia hemoglobin in plasma
hemoglobinuria free hemoglobin found in urine
hemostasis stoppind the flow of blood out of a blood vessle
Heterophils phagocytic avian WBC similar to neutrophil
hilus isolated area of some organs where blood vessles & other structures enter & leave
homeostasis state of chemical equilibrium maintained in the body by feedback & regulation processes in response to internal & external changes
humoral immune response type of defense immune response regulated by B lymphocytes
immunoglobulins "created by B lymphocytes, aka antibodies"
inspiration process of drawing air into the lungs; inhalation
intercostal spaces space between two ribs
internal respiration exchange of O2 & CO2 between the blood in the capillaries all over the body & the cells & tissues of the body
interpleural space space betwween the pleural covering of the right & left lung
intravascular hemolysis destructuion of RBCs w/I a blood vessel
larynx """voice box"" short, irregulat tube of cartilage & muscle that connects the pharynx w/ the trachea"
lateral ventricles blind pouches that project laterally between the vocal cords & the vestibular folds in the larynxes of nonruminants
lobes subdivisions of the lungs
lower respiratory tract all of the respiratory strucutres w/i the lungs
lymph excess tissue fluid that is picked up by lymph vessels & retured to peripheral blood
Lymphocytosis increase in the number of lyphocytes
Lymphopenia decrease in the number of lymphocytes
lysosomes organelle that fights pathogens; contains digestive enzymes that help destroy microorganisms that have been eaten by neutrophils
marginal pool neutrophils found lining the walls of small blood vessels
mast cells transient cell of connective tissue containing heparin & histamine used in the inflammatory response
Mechanical system sets inspiration & expiration limits for normal resting breathing
mediastinum area of the thorax between the lungs
megakaryocytes "large, multinucleated cells in red bone marrow that are parent cells of platelets"
memory cells lymphocytes that are programmed to remember the antigen that caused a previous immune response & to produce a more rapid response the second time
mesobronchi avian bronchi that has entered the lungs & lost their reinforcing cartilaginous rings
minute volume volume of air that an animal breathes in & out during one minute
mitral valve left AV valve; separates the LA & venticle & protects the pulmonary venous system from the high pressures in the LV during systole
Monocytes "large, phagocytic WBC"
monocytopenia decrease in the number of monocytes
monocytosis increase in the number of monocytes
mononuclear phagocyte system collective term fro monocytes & tissue macrophages
multicameral lung multichambered lung
myocardium middle layre of the heaert & the main muscle layer responsible for contraction during systole
nares nostrils
nasal meatus any of the main passageways in the nasal cavity
nasal passages convoluted air passageways in the nose that conduct air between the nostrils & the pharynx
nasal septum midline barrier that separates the left & right nasal passages
Natural Killer Cells (NK) lymphocytes that are neither T lymphocytes nor B lymphocytes but have the ability to kill some types of tumor cells & cells infected w/ various viruses
Neutrophils phagocytes & first line of defense because of fast response time
olfactory sense sense of smell
opsonins plasma protein that cotas an antigen making it more attractive to phagocytes
opsonization process by which osonins coat an antigen
Oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen
papillary muscles "muscular, nipplelike projectiions in the heart that anchor the chordae tendineae"
parabronchi subdivisions of the secondary bronchi in birds
paranasal sinuses space w/i a skull bone that is an outpouching of the nasal cavity
partial pressure portion of the overall pressure each gas exerts
paucicameral lung lung w/ four chambers
pericardium tissue that forms a sac around the heart to protect it & to control the movement of the heart w/i the throax
Peripheral blood blood outside the bone marrow that is flowing to & from the heart & lungs in blood vessles
petechiae "small hemorrhage found on the skin, mucous membranes, & serosal surfaces"
phagocytosis ingestion of microorganisms by phagocytic cells
pharynx throat; common passageway for the respiratory & digestive systems
phonation voice production
Pleomorphic describes a monocyte nucles that can change shape w/o dividing into segments
pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs primitive cell type found in red bone marrow
polychromasia describes immature RBC cytoplasm when it is still metabolicailly acive & has started prducing hemoglobin
Polycythemia abnomral increase in number of RBCs
Polymorphonuclear describes a nucleus that has many shapes
pulmonary adj referring to the lungs
pulmonary artery arises from the RV that delivers blood into the pulmonary circulation
pulmonary circulation delivers unoxygenated blood to the lungs & oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart
pulmonary valve separates the RV & the pulmonary arter during diastole
pyknotic nucleus has died
red bone marrow hematopoietic type of bone marrow
red pulp area of the spleen that is filled w/ blood sinusoids & macrophages
renal portal system the network of veins that transport blood from the extremities to the kidneys before returing it to the heart in birds.
residual volume volume of air remaining in the lungs after the max amount of air has been forced out b expiration
respiratory center area in the brain stem that controls the berathing process
roaring produced by paralysis of the muscles that tighten the arytenoid cartilages & vocal cord on one side (usually left); laryngeal hemiplegia
senescence process of aging
septum partition in an organ or area
sinoatrial node groups of specialized caridac muscle cells in the wall of the RA of the heart acts as the heart's pacemaker
sinuses outpouching of the nasal passages that are housed w/i spaces in areas of the skull bones
Stroke volume amount of blood ejected w/ each cardiac contraction
sulcus "grooves, especially shallow grooves, in the cerebral cortex"
surfactant componenet of the fluid that lines the alveoli in the lungs
syrinx enlargement of the trachea above the sternum (birds)
systole part of the cardiac cycle assoc w/ contraction of the ventricles & atria & ejection of blood into the arterial systems
T Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity
thoracic duct large lymph vessel found in the thorax
thorax aka thoracic/chest cavity
Thrombocytes platelets
thrombopoiesis production of platelets
thymocytes pre T-cells in the thymus
thyroid cartilage V-shaped that forms & supports the ventral portion of the larynx
tidal volume volume of air breathed in & out in one breath
trachea "windpipe; short, wide ube that extends from the larynx to the thorax & branches into the left & right main bronchi"
tricuspid valve right AV valve; separates the RA & ventricle
turbinates "4 thin, scroll-like bones that fill most of the space in the nasal cavity"
unicameral lung one-chambered lung
upper respiratory tract respiratory structures outside the lungs
vestibular folds false vocal cords
vocal cords or vocal folds 2 fibrous connective tissue b&s attached to the arytenoid cartilages that stretch across the lumen of the larynx & vibrate as air passes over them
white pulp area of the spleen that contains lymphocytes
whole blood blood that contains plasma & all the formed elements
yellow bone marrow most common; consist mainly of adipose connective tissue
Created by: armyhorses



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